Dnyanesh ‘DV’ Darshane is a Managing Director of FOBE Solutions, USA. FOBE Solutions delivers business solutions to organizationswho supply products or provide services to Food and Beverage Industries.
FOBE Solutions works closely with its partners (academia, industry experts and entrepreneurs) to provide proven and effective solutions in areas of Quality, Food Safety, Productivity, Sustainability and Innovation. Based on the various needs of our clients, FOBÉ Solutions builds targeted leadership development programs-including coaching to managers and executives and SME training through eLearning platforms.
FOBE Solutions closely works with organizations for assessing market potentialfor new technologies in local and global markets. On the other hand, FOBE Solutions also supportsuser organizations in adapting existing andnew technologies for optimizing the supply chain and introducing innovative products. DVhas experiencein the international corporate world and field operations in the Pharmaceutical and Food & Beverage Industries for 32+years combined.DVhas gained critical industry experience through multiple roles in Asia, Europe, and North America and has held senior global management positions in various multinational companies.
During his career as a business professional, DV implemented various infrastructure projects and launched new products and developed innovative sustainable solutions. DV is an experienced mentorwho is passionate about providing services to business seekingexpertise with regards to global Food & Beverage Industries.
DVholds a M.B.A. from Goizueta Business School, Emory University, USA and Ph.D. degree in Analytical Chemistry from Royal Institute of Science (RIS),Mumbai and has served as a Board Member in various non-profit institutions.
Director, ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Technology , (Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Govt. of India), Matsyapuri P.O, CIFT Junction, Willington Island, Cochin, Kerala, India
Varinder currently works at Mondelez International. In his role as Associate Director, RDQI, Innovation and Productivity, he is responsible for New product development and Margin management for Mondelez Chocolate brands across Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa. Varinder has over 16 years of work experience including 12 plus years overseas (Australia)covering product and process development for Dairy, Grocery and Confectionary categories. Prior to current role and moving back to India, Varinder held many roles at Kraft Foods Australia and Mondelez Australia and worked as Technical services and Innovation manager at Lemnos Foods, Australia. Varinder has been part of number of successful new product innovations across all these categories and has a patent and trade secret to his credit. He also led the team to win ‘Food Industry Strategy’ and ‘Innovation in Manufacturing’ grants sponsored by Victorian state and Australian federal governments. He holdsB.Tech degree in Food process engineering from GNDU, Amritsar, India, Masters (Research) degree in Food technology from Victoria University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia and MBA from Australian School of Graduate Management, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
Varinder is passionate career mentor and has spent number of years mentoring students from various Universities including Melbourne University, Australia, Adult Migration & Education Services,Australia and informally at AGSM. He has also delivered many lectures at various Conferences and University campuses on topics covering Product development with Export focus, Innovation and Careers in Food Industry.
Senior Lecturer, Department of Food Science and Technology, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka.
Sri S Bhattacharjee, Executive Director & former Managing Director of NERAMAC (North Eastern Regional Agricultural Marketing Corporation) Ltd, a Govt. of India Enterprise, is a result driven professional with around 34 years of experience in the areas of Production, Planning & Management, and Quality Assurance in Food Processing & Agriculture Marketing. He was earlier working as a Scientist in CFTRI, Mysore and in central PSUs at Delhi & with State Government in the North East.
He is a post graduate in Food Technology from UN/FAO, International Food Technology Training Centre at CFTRI, Mysore after his graduation with Honors’ in Agriculture from Visva Bharati, Shantiniketan. He has furthered his professional qualification through certificate courses in Marketing Management from Indian Institute of Management, Kolkata, Project Management from Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi & RFD (Result Framework Document) from premiere Institute like Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration, Mussoorie.
He has upgraded his professional wisdom through short courses at Institutes of repute like Kansas State University, USA; Entrepreneurial Development Institute of India, Ahmedabad; Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore; Small Industry Extension Training Institute (SIET/IIE) at Hyderabad and also at National Institute of Rural development (NIRD) at Guwahati.
Sri Bhattacharjee is a keen strategist & planner with skills in conceptualizing & effecting process initiatives to enhance efficiency & productivity in agribusiness. He has demonstrated abilities to enhance production operations & optimize resource & capacity utilization to escalate productivity & operational efficiencies in related Central Public Sector Enterprises. In recognition to his works in the field, he has been awarded with Rajiv Gandhi Memorial National Award during 2012 by Public Sector Today. All India Food Processors’ Association, New Delhi has conferred Sri Bhattacharjee Nagaraja Rao R. Jagdale Memorial Award for the year 2013 for outstanding contribution to the development of Food Processing Industries in the Country. He has good number of publications under his credit in National technical journals, magazines etc besides many citations at National & International programs. He is a Member of Association of Food Scientists and Technologist (I), Mysore; Chairman, All India Food Processors Association, Guwahati Chapter; Chairman of Food Processing, Agro, Forest, Rural Industry Committee of Federation of Industries of North Eastern Region (FINER); Advisory Member of FICCI, NE Council; Member, Assam State Council of Confederation of Indian Industries; Member, Strategic Committee & one of the Mentor, Bharatiya Yuva Shakti Trust (BYST), CII, Assam.
As a professional, Sri Bhattacharjee is associated as an Advisory Council to Assocom Institute of Bakery Technology & Management (AIBTM), Noida; Member of Board of Governing Council of Agriculture Skill Council of India (ASCI), New Delhi, Adviser to Centre for Agriculture & Rural Development (CARD), New Delhi, Member, Fruits, Vegetables & Allied Products Sectional Committee, FAD 10 of Bureau of Indian Standards, Government of India, New Delhi, Board of Director of North East Mega Food Park Limited, Guwahati & Member of the Governing Body of Indian Institute of Packaging, Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India, Mumbai besides Guest Faculty to many Institute of repute. He has also actively participated in the notable consultancy projects for NABARD and also for preparation of PIB, DPR for development & setting up of food processing in the north eastern region & across PAN India viz. Karnataka, New Delhi, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
HIGHLIGHTS OF SKILLS, EXPERIENCE AND QUALIFICATIONS
• Ph. D in Food Technology.
• M. Tech in Food Engg. & Technology, MBA in Operations Management and B.
Tech in Food Technology
• Certified Lead auditor for ISO-9000 Series & HACCP and Certified Internal
Auditor for ISO-22000:2005.
• 9.10 years’ academic experience of teaching Engineering & Management courses.
• 4.1 years’ work experience in Canned, Glass Jars & Frozen Food Industries.
• Ph.D - Food Technology (2017), Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (CGPA
• M.Tech. - Food Engineering & Technology (2009), Sant Longowal Institute of
Engg. and Technology, SLIET (deemed-to-be-university), Longowal (CGPA
Department of Food Science and Technology,
I.K.G. Punjab Technical University,
Near Puspha Gujral Science City,
H.No.: D-7/17, Azad Nagar,
Kot Khalsa, Street No. 1,
Ph. No – +91-9478098069
• PG Diploma - Dairy Technology (2009), Annamali University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu (Distance education).
• MBA in Operations Management (2006), Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar (Distance education).
• B. Tech - Food Technology with distinction (2003), Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar.
• Diploma in Export Management (2003), Indian Institute of Export Management, Bengaluru, Karnataka (Correspondence)
• Advance Diploma in French (2003), Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (Part Time).
• Diploma in French (2002), Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (Part Time).
• Certificate in French (2001), Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (Part Time).
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Encapsulation and delivery of bioactives using cereal based polysaccharides
Adil Gani1* Mudasir Ahmad1, Asir Gani2
1 Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190006, India
2 Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90112, Thailand
*Correspondence email: email@example.com
Bioactive compounds are playing important role in health related problems, however there are some major limitations for their application in food Industry, like they are chemically unstable, susceptible to oxidative degradation, low bioavailability, less permeability and degradation or fast release during human digestion The cereal based polysaccharides such as, β-glucan and starch can be used to create a diverse range of systems enabling encapsulation, protection, and delivery of functional components, such as probiotics, antioxidants, other nutraceuticals and metal oxides. In our studies on encapsulation of folic acid, catechin, caffeine, probiotics, anthocyanins and others using biopolymers like starch, resistant starch and β-glucan from various sources, the targeted and slow release of compounds were achieved. The study on nano encapsulation of catechin showed the bioactive properties were retained at higher level in encapsulated catechin compared to free catechin upon in-vitro digestion. Encapsulation of caffeine in different polysaccharide materials (β-glucan, resistant starch, and β-cyclodextrin) showed maximum decline in the release of caffeine followed by resistant starch and β-cyclodextrin under mimicked stomach conditions whereas RS provided more slow release in intestinal conditions. The study on probiotic encapsulation in resistant starch and β-glucan microspheres showed better survival ability than that of free cells in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The higher content of bioactives or viable cell numbers in the intestinal conditions revealed the protection of core material from adverse conditions of stomach by encapsulation. The research suggests the fortification of such functional micro or nano encapsules in various food systems to fight with various diseases.
Key words: Encapsulation; Starch; Glucan; Probiotics; Bioactive compounds
Experienced nutrition and public health specialist with a demonstrated history of working in the social development sector and nutrition research with 7 years of experience. Having a Masters in food science and nutrition and presently pursuing a second masters in global health and infectious diseases at University of Edinburgh, Scotland. Recently obtained a certificate of advanced studies in public governance and administration from ETH, Zurich (2018). Skilled in nutrition education, nutrition research, counselling, content writing, food formulation and public health. Involved in advanced research in the field of maternal and child nutrition for 3 plus years. Also a certified diabetes educator by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Food Fortification in India: Enriching Foods, Enriching Lives
Background: India is home to 1/3rd of the world’s 2 billion micronutrient deficient individuals. Despite, plenty of sunshine, Vitamin D deficiency is in epidemic proportions in India. Children in both rural and urban areas, pregnant women and their new born are low in vitamin D. Studies suggest that for lasting effect, maintenance dose of vitamin D is needed, thus there is public health need to fortify Indian foods with vitamin D. Vitamin A deficiency is another issue that continues to be a public health problem in India which causes blindness in 52,500 children every year. India loses INR 80,400 Crore in GDP due to micronutrient deficiencies every year whereas scaling up the micronutrient initiatives would cost less than INR 3846 Crore a year. Investing in country’s nutrition is cost-effective and contributes to reduction in malnutrition.
Large scale staple food fortification with micronutrients is an effective complimentary strategy to address micronutrient deficiencies along with dietary diversification and micronutrient supplementation. Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is actively engaging and promoting food fortification through various ministries at the central government level by ensuring supply of fortified foods in safety net programs. Food Fortification Resource Centre (FFRC), a resource hub is setup by FSSAI to support large scale food fortification in the country.
Current context: Wide acceptance and adaptation of large scale staple food fortification as a complementary strategy is extremely essential to address micronutrient deficiencies. For such an initiative to be successful in a country like India with diverse and complex systems and structures of governance, it becomes critical to have all stake holders on-board. Ensuring supply of healthy, quality assured and adequate quantities of food, involves coordinated functioning of all stakeholders at multiple levels.
Fortification of staples is strongly recommended in the National Nutrition Policy and National Nutrition Mission. The food fortification final notification of standards has been notified in the gazette of India by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) which will be effective from 1st of January, 2019. The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has defined and notified the ‘Standards of fortification’ for staples foods: wheat, oil, milk, double fortified salt and rice. FSSAI is actively engaging with the Food Processing Industry (FPI) and the Food Business Operators (FBOs) to fortify cereals, salt, oil and milk with notified micronutrients so that the fortified staples are easily available to all people through the open market commercial channels and to the State Governments for distribution through the public funded programmes like Public Distribution System, Integrated Child Development Services and Mid-Day Meal Scheme.
Way forward: With union and state government’s increasingly playing active role as welfare state, number of departments directly running and/or involving with social security programs supplying food and food supplements is steadily increasing. Though broad objectives of all these arms of the government are similar, they function mostly independent of each other and they generally serve different population sub groups. The scale, reach and penetration of these programs is primarily targeted to benefit neediest communities, covering populations residing predominantly in rural and hard to reach geographies. These programs collectively generate large demand for quality assured and healthy food.
 Kotecha, P.V. (2008) Micronutrient Malnutrition in India: Let us say “No” to it now. Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 33(1):9-10
 Harinarayan, C.V. and Joshi, S.R. (2009) Vitamin D status in India--its implications and remedial measures. Journal of Association of Physicians in India. 57:40-8
 World Bank (2011) Nutrition country profiles. [Online] Available at:http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NUTRITION/Resources/281846-1271963823772/India.pdf. [Accessed on: 07-10-2017]
Aminah Lewis is the Technical Director for Sensient Asia’s Food and Pharmaceutical Colors Division. Her team is based in Guangzhou’s and Singapore’s Global Innovations Center sites. Aminah has worked in the colors industry for 15 years and in the food industry for 17 years. Aminah has presented at various food conferences and taught Color Technology courses at the National Confectioner’s Association’s Confectioners Course (University of Wisconsin-Madison). A graduate of Prairie View A&M University in Texas with a bachelor’s degree in Biology, Aminah is originally from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and has worked for Sensient Colors for eight years in multiple sales and technical roles. Aminah has recently transferred to Singapore after spending two years in China.
Sensient Technologies has acquired a clean extraction technology known as PhytoClean™.
This revolutionary technology allows us to conduct extraction from natural plant sources using environmentally-friendly extraction methods - including water only extractions - instead of traditional chemical solvents. This highly-selective extraction process results in higher yields of the target compound. These extractions reduce risk to manufacturers, the environment and enables the manufacturer to claim their extracts as solvent-free. The process will be discussed, as well as products that are readily available. The addition of Sensient Natural Extracts is a major step in the evolution of Sensient’s ‘seed to shelf’ strategy to innovate across the value chain for natural and organic ingredients. Sensient Natural Extract’s leading edge plant extraction technology better enables Sensient to meet customer demand for pure ingredients in their food and beverage, nutraceutical, and personal care products.
Non -thermal technology for inactivation of microorganisms in ready to serve beverages and start ups
Amunugoda, P.N.R.J.1*, R1, Sooriarachchi, A1, De Silva, A.B.G.C.J. De1, Pitipanaarachchi, R.
1Food Technology Section, Modern Research and Development Complex, Industrial Technology Institute, 503/A, Halbarawa Garden, Thalahene, Malabe, Sri Lanka 07.
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Mobile: +94718475734 Office: +94112797346
Use of heat through thermal processing operations include, drying, evaporation, pasteurization, and sterilization. Non-thermal processing technology have proven to be inactivating pathogens and ensure foods safety, retaining the sensory quality and nutrient content similar to fresh products those novel techniques to Sri Lankan food industry. Different juices processed by applicable non-thermal techniques of microfiltration, ultrasonic processing and UV-C treatment vs thermal pasteurization on the reduction of microorganisms and sensory and nutritional qualities were evaluated. Total antioxidant potential via estimation of active Hydrogen (rH) of pasteurized, micro filtrated, ultrasonically and UV-C treated was determined. Results indicated encouraging and significant effect to reduction of microbial content and maintenance of sensory qualities and health benefits of non-thermally processed juices compared to pasteurization thus provision for systematic starting up of non- thermal juice processing.There is significant difference (p<0.05) in active hydrogen among, pasteurized, micro filtrated, ultrasonically and UV-C treated juices. Barriers and obstacles for successful transformation from thermally processing of juices to non-thermally processing requires strategic technical management approach resolving market uncertainty by technology generators, end users and policy makers. Substitution and diffusion strategies are incremental and evolutionary with limited risks and are easier to implement. Expansion and creation strategies are risky and require the partnership and education of the technology end user.
Key Words: thermal, non-thermal, active Hydrogen, health benefits technical strategies
3D Printing of Foods
Dr. C. Anandharamakrishnan, FIE, FRSC, FRSB
Director, Indian Institute of Food Processing Technology (IIFPT)
Ministry of Food Processing Industries, Govt. of India
Pudukkottai Road, Thanjavur - 613005
3D printing is a type of additive manufacturing which involves layer-by-layer object building. Designing foods to meet specific demands of consumers, such as those for elderly, children and athletes, have raised the need for new technologies that are commercially viable approaches for processing of additives, flavours and vitamins with tailored chemical and structural characteristics, and longer shelf-life properties. Food printing is the process of fabricating the foods according to the need of the consumers with the customised composition, colour, shape, structure, flavour, texture and nutrition. In addition, it can automate the cooking process to save time and produce meals on-demand to minimize waste. The technology of 3D printing can offer mass customization, on-demand production, as well as personalized nutrition. The fabrication technique includes several approaches such as Fused Deposition Modeling, Stereo lithography process, Selective Laser Sintering, Powder Binder Printing and Bio printing.
To address common health issues prevalent in the country like vitamin deficiency, hypertension, diabetic and others, basic dietary requirements can be identified and optimized. There is a great potential for the utilisation of low-cost nutritious indigenous/unexplored food sources as base materials for 3D printing. This would include extracts of plants, agricultural commodities including millets, waste products from different food industries and other sources such as insects and sea weeds. Apart from providing nutrient rich foods, we can emphasize on standardizing the formulations for the range of new product developed based on dietary requirements identified. These would include products like nutri-snacks, energy bar, chocolates and fruit jelly.
Thus, 3D printing of foods exerts influence on other processing technologies. It allows the consumer to manipulate material supply to develop new flavours, textures and shapes in the fabricated products to create entirely different eating experience. Integration of this technique with traditional methods helps to produce better quality products meeting the tailored the needs and nutritional requirements of the individual. The use of food as raw material for printing fascinates the consumers to bring about product innovation and fulfil their needs.
This talk will focus on the future of 3D printing of foods, linking the scope of using microencapsulation and electrospraying for such applications. Criteria for food printing and critical food properties to be established will be explained in detail.
Keywords: 3D printing; personalized nutrition; mass customization; microencapsulation; electrospraying.
Effectively publishing and communicating science internationally
Publishing your results is a vital step in the research lifecycle and in your career as a scientist. Publishing papers is necessary to get your work seen by the scientific community, to exchange your ideas globally and to ensure you receive the recognition for your results. The talk will begin with an introduction to Springer Nature, a leading STM publisher for 175 years and home to many of the world’s foremost researchers, including more than 200 Nobel laureates. The following topics will then be addressed: How to choose the most appropriate journal for your manuscript? How to submit a paper successfully;? What is the difference between fully open access and subscription based publications? How do I comply with publishing ethics? What are the steps in the peer-review process;? Alternative metrics, content sharing and preprints will also be discussed.
Lastly, the talk will introduce you to the steps that are involved in publishing a book, starting with the following topics from an author’s perspective: At what stage of my book idea/plan should I contact the publisher? What information do I need to submit? What is the workflow and timeline of the book publication process?
The concise talk should give you a bird’s eye view of STM Publishing.
Prof. Anil Kumar Chauhan is currently working as Professor at Centre of Food Science and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. He received his PhD inDairy Science and Technology and has authored several publications in various journals and books. Dr. Chauhan is designated as Chairman, Scientific Panel on Fruits &Vegetables and their Products (Including dried fruits and nuts, salt, spices and condiments) FSSAI, Gov. of India and Member, Scientific Committee, FSSAI, Govt. of India. He is President of AFST(I), Varanasi chapter. He is also the Director of Centre of Advanced Faculty Training-Food Processing) ICAR, Gov. of India, BHU Centre.
Development & Process Optimization of Sugar Free Biscuit through Fenugreek Seed Powder and Natural Sweetener (Stevia)
The sugar free biscuit was fortified with fenugreek seed powder and sugar which was replaced by natural sweetener stevia. The functional component of fenugreek seed powder is trigonelline which is helpful in the production of insulin.In the research work, 31 trials were performed taking 4 factors Viz. Skimmed milk powder (SMP), Stevia, butter and fenugreek seed powder and responses were optimized using Response Surface methodology. The composition of sugar free biscuits was 0.5 g - 6.5g SMP, 0.5 -5.5 g stevia, 10-50 g butter and fenugreek seed powder 0.5-6.5%. The optimized parameters for developed sugar free biscuits includes SMP (1.7727 %), Stevia (4.3485 %), Butter (37.8788 %) and fenugreek seed powder (0.5 %).After optimization of sugar free biscuit, diameter, thickness and spread ratio was recorded as 5.04 cm, 0.82 cm, and 4.92 cm respectively.Thefinal optimized product contained carbohydrates (76.75 %), protein (5.90 %), fat (14.85), ash (~ 1%),moisture (4%) and crude fibre (1.5 %).The colour of sugar free biscuit was recorded by Hunter colour flex and the L*, a*, b*, value was 46.40, 12, 20.29, respectively. Fortified sugar free biscuits and refined wheat flour were analyzed for pasting properties of starch, gelatinization of starch, peak and final viscosity. Developed sugar free biscuit was rich in calcium and magnesium and their concentration were observed to be 294.8mg/100g and 451.5mg/100g respectively by ion chromatography. Atomic absorption spectroscopy of developed sugar free biscuits was performed for mineral analysis and reported as iron (1.93mg/100g), copper (0.065mg/100g), and zinc (0.325 mg/100g).
Mrs Anita Bose Natarajan is a Senior Adviser at Yashna Trust - Education USA Bangalore. She works primarily with prospective students interested in pursuing a Master's Degree or higher, in the U.S. Mrs Natarajan has a Bachelor's Degree from The University of Portland and a Master's Degree from Cornell University - both in electrical engineering. Her career as an engineer focused on building the internet backbone and access nodes
Higher Education in the U.S. – Possible Pathways in Food Technology
The information session by EducationUSA will cover a broad overview of the U.S. Higher Education system, including types of U.S. Universities, academic intakes, degree programs for students, graduate application packages and standardized tests required, as well as, EducationUSA recommended application timelines for students.
Critical aspects like accreditation, cost of attendance in U.S. Universities, as well as, key resources for students will also be covered by the EducationUSA Advisers. The United States has no federal Ministry of Education or other centralized authority exercising single national control over postsecondary educational institutions in this country. The Department of Education (ope.ed.gov/accreditation) and the Council for Higher Education and Accreditation (www.chea.org) reviews and recognizes accrediting agencies, which assure certain established standards of educational institutions and their programs.
Students will also learn about financial assistance offered by U.S. Universities to international students. The amount and type of assistance or scholarship or financial aid offered varies by college, university, department, the level of study and various policies outlined by a particular school. Financial aid is usually available to students in the form of a Teaching Assistantship (TA), Graduate Assistantship (GA), and/or Research Assistantships (RA).
There are several pathways for students in the area of food technology in the U.S. offering students a wide variety of courses in the field. Students will learn about the different degree programs in food technology available for students in U.S. Universities.
Dr Anne Bridges received her academic training in Australia and Canada and worked in health care and consumer food products for international companies including 3M Company and General Mills Inc. Currently Dr Bridges divides her time between the USA and Australia/South East Asia focusing on projects in food quality and food safety. Dr Bridges is the Technical Director at AACC International. Throughout this time she has maintained an association with relevant Codex Alimentarius committees working with both governments and non-profit organisations. At AACC Intl her responsibilities include the Approved Methods technical committees, new methods and guidelines and the Laboratory Proficiency Rating Program.
Since 1914, AACC Intl has published analytical methods and guidelines, in grains and pulses for a wide range of analytes and applications. More than 60 years ago, the AACC Intl check sample program was introduced with laboratory proficiency reporting. This program includes food and feed matrices for key grain quality analytes, cereal rheology testing, food labelling and food safety testing. In all levels of the commercial grain handling and testing laboratories check samples are used to verify analysis results, equipment performance and the validity of the laboratory quality programs. Experts in these technical areas at AACC Intl actively participate in the AACC Intl meeting symposia, workshops and training webinars.
Importance of Analytical Quality Control to Ensure Food Safety”
From WHO Key Facts on Food Safety. “Access to sufficient amounts of safe and nutritious food is key to sustaining life and promoting good health.” “Food safety, nutrition and food security are inextricably linked. Unsafe food creates a vicious cycle of disease and malnutrition, particularly affecting infants, young children, elderly and the sick.”
Food safety is an important issue for all food suppliers. Food safety can be compromised by microbiological and/or mold contamination, food allergens, food contaminants for example mycotoxins, food mislabeling and food fraud – all of these examples can lead to food unsafe for human consumption.
To control food safety in all food systems we need to make use of the appropriate food quality tools. These include government regulation and practice, international standards and practices for laboratory management, food sampling and analytical testing, food labeling and training and education covering all of these areas. In addition, new technologies, new networks and communication tools are providing significantly improved information and systems for rapid response. Recent examples of international food safety incidents will be used to describe the most important tools.
Maximizing Nutrient uptake and bioavailability through food matrix design
The focus of research in Nutrition has moved from simple nutrient analysis to understanding the relationship between food structure and their behavior during physiological processing. An understanding of food structures in natural and processed foods and their behavior in the GI tract will be useful to improve the bioavailability of nutrients, bioactive food components and also to optimize diets and set appropriate nutrient recommendations in health and disease. It is well known that the bioavailability of a nutrient is governed by external and internal factors. Quantitative analysis of bioactive compounds from foods/ food systems does not reflect the in vivo effects as metabolites reaching the blood system may be different from the original compounds found in food, as a result of an intensive metabolism that takes place during absorption. Nutritional efficacy of food products may be ensured by the determination of bio-accessibility, which provides valuable information in order to select the appropriate dosage and source of food matrices. Although several methods are available, there is a need to establish the best approach for the assessment of specific compounds. Comparison between in vivo and in vitro procedures used to determine bio-accessibility and bioavailability is carried out, taking into account the strengths and limitations of each experimental technique, along with an intensive description of actual approaches applied to assess bio-accessibility of bioactive compounds. Effects of food matrix, chemical forms of nutrients, impact of enhancers and inhibitors on nutrient bioavailability along with a description of available methods are discussed. Also, our research on assessing bio-accessibility of nutrients/ non- nutrients will be addressed.
Dr. Barinderjit Singh is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Food Science & Technology at I. K. Gujral Punjab Technical University. He is a PhD in Food Technology from Guru Nanak Dev University and M. Tech in Food Engineering and Technology from SLIET, Longowal. Apart from this, he also holds to his credit PG Diploma in Dairy Technology, MBA in Operations Management, B.Tech in Food Technology, Diploma in Export Management and certificate, diploma, Advance Diploma in French. He has more than 13 years of work experience in both academics and industry. His area of interest includes nutraceuticals and functional food. His research work appears in various national and international journals of repute and he has served as a reviewer in many top-quality journals. He has delivered many invited speaker talks and has been an active participant in conferences, seminars, FDPs in varied fields. Recently, he has been conferred upon the Best Paper Award for his phenomenal work in ICFOST-XXV organized by AFSTI and GNDU.
Challenges for Isolation and Characterization of Polyphenolic Compounds
Polyphenols are major class of plant secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom in free and bound (esters or glycosides) forms. These compounds are recognized for antioxidant properties and their probable role in curing and preventing major chronical ailments viz. cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases or for food preservation. But, the proper isolation and characterization of polyphenols from biomaterials is required before using for specific applications, such as pharmaceutical and food industries. However, the development of an efficient procedure for the isolation and characterization of polyphenolic compounds from different biomaterials is a challenging task not only due to their structural diversity, but, many other factors such as their bounding with other cellular components, extraction methods, extraction variables, non-uniform distribution within the biomaterial fraction and the target analytes. One of the predominant issues in the study of the polyphenolic compounds is the extraction method. The conventional solvent extraction can degrade these compounds due to oxidation conditions, high temperature and/or longer extraction duration. This has led to the emergence of numerous advanced techniques like, supercritical fluid extraction, microwaveassisted extraction and ultrasound assisted extraction (due to more extraction in shorter duration that can be used for extraction of polyphenolic compounds from different biomaterials. Although numerous advanced techniques showed better extraction of polyphenols from different biomaterials, it is necessary to optimize other variables, such as, type and concentration of solvent, extraction duration, extraction temperature, ultrasonic/microwave power and particle size using any experimental design. Different studies also suggested that single solvent is inefficient to extract all polyphenols. Therefore, the sequence extraction using different solvents is needed for extraction of free polyphenols. However, the bound polyphenolic compounds are commonly linked with carbohydrate, protein and lignocellulose by ester or ether bonds which can be extracted after chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis of any plant. The soluble bound polyphenolic compounds are released by hydrolysis of extract, whereas, insoluble bound polyphenolic compounds are obtained with base and acid hydrolysis of residue left over after extraction. The studies related to alkali and acid hydrolysis of residue revealed the presence of good amount (upto 40%) of non-extractable polyphenolic compounds. This reinforced that the polyphenolic compounds from biomaterials are underestimated in the absence of evaluation of insoluble bound residue. So, there is need to optimize each step of isolation of polyphenols from each biomaterial for evaluating the complete profile of polyphenols.
I am working as a Lecturer at Dimensional International College, Singapore/Cardiff Metropolitan University UK from 2017. I was awarded Senior Research Fellowship (1994-1997) from CSIR, India. My PhD degree was awarded in 1998 from Central food Technology Research Institute, University of Mysore. I was also awarded a prestigious JSPS (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at Kumamoto University in Japan for 2 years (1998-2000). I worked as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at Baylor College of Medicine, University of Texas from 2000 to 2002. I worked as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow and Research Investigator at MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas from 2002 to 2006. I worked as Research Scientist at Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology in Singapore from 2006 to 2012. I was self-employed (Clinical Research Consultancy) from 2013 to 2016. My Scientific contributions have been published in about 28 papers in peer reviewed journals, 4 patents and invited talk in international and national meetings. My research interest focused on investigating extraction and characterization of nutraceuticals, nanoparticle (non-viral and viral) based systemic gene therapy for various cancers and anti-cancer properties of synthetic small molecules (nanomedicine).
Functional foods based on Nutraceuticals from horticultural produce
Nutraceuticals are foods or products derived from food that have health benefit including the treatment and prevention of a various diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular, cancer, osteoporosis, arthritis and diabetes. Despite the development of many pharmaceutical drugs, nutraceuticals have received considerable interest due to potential nutritional, safety, therapeutic effects and thereby it is highly in demand. A market research recently proposed that the worldwide nutraceutical market is expanding.
Here, the handling and various methods available for the purification of nutraceuticals will be covered. The influence of different solvents as well as enhance the efficacy of nutraceuticals will be highlighted. Additionally, examples of important fruit and vegetables and its nutraceuticals constituents will be presented, the favorable and unfavorable properties of nutraceuticals and also the future research needs will be discussed
CEREALS AND PULSES SCENARIO IN INDIA
ABSTRACT: With only about 2.4% of the world’s geographical area and 4% of its water resources, India has to support about 17% of the world’s human population and 15% of the livestock. India holds the second-largest agricultural land (179.9 million hectares) in the world, with food grain covering dominant part of the cropped area (65%). India is the world’s largest producer of millets and second-largest producer of food grains like wheat, rice, and pulses. Despite of that, India fares poorly in food grain consumption, not only compared to the developed countries but even amongst its closest neighbours in South Asia. The shortage in food grains consumption in India is so much lower than the global average that India will need to push up its food grain consumption by 70-80 kg per capita per annum, which, at the present growth rate, seems a tall order to achieve. The only plausible way out is to at least double the per capita availability of food grains in India – whether grown internally or imported.
Nutritional properties and processing of Sohphlang (Flemingia vestita), a tuberous crop of Meghalaya
Sohphlang (Flemingia vestita), is an indigenous edible root or tuber like fruit cultivated in Meghalaya. It is eaten in the raw form and used in traditional medicine. Its flour has good nutritional properties, phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The tuber has around 8% protein, 872 mg% potassium and good quantities of copper, manganese, zinc and iron. It is a good source of isoflavones and genistein is the predominant isoflavone with content comparable with soybean. The tuber offers scope for exploiting its health benefitting functional ingredients. The tuber has 68% starch on dry basis with 22% amylose content. Physical modifications of sohphlang starch by heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and annealing (ANN) were found to alter the physicochemical, functional, crystalline, and pasting properties of the starch with HMT having stronger influence on the changes. Modification increased the amylose content to 28% with increase in severity of treatment. Increase in the amount of slowly digestible and resistant starch was more in HMT than ANN. Sophlang starch therefore has scope for value addition as noodles and in the processing of canned and frozen foods.
U.S. FDA’s Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) Transforming Food Safety Control Systems: Training, Technical Assistance, and Guidance Documents
Signed into law in 2011, the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) is the most sweeping reform of the FDA’s food safety authority in more than 70 years. FSMA’s broad and challenging mandate focuses on four principal themes: (1) Preventive Controls; (2) Inspection Compliance and Response; (3) Imported Food Safety; and (4) Enhanced Partnerships. The FDA facilitates and promotes FSMA compliance by applying the implementation principles of educating while regulating, continued learning, and ongoing outreach to stakeholders.
Because FSMA rules may not address every specific issue that industry stakeholders face, the FDA often issues “guidance” for regulated industry. Guidance documents represent the FDA’s current thinking on a topic, often discussing issues that relate to the design, production, manufacturing, testing, labelling, and promotion of regulated food products. Guidance documents may also concern the processing, content, and evaluation or approval of FDA submissions as well as issues related to FDA inspections and enforcement policies.
FSMA also directed the FDA to develop a Capacity-Building Plan aimed at training foreign governments and food producers on U.S. requirements for safe food. Key actions of the Capacity-Building Plan include: coordination with other U.S. agencies; development of training materials through partnerships; prioritization of training and capacity-building efforts through risk assessments and needs assessments; and provision of support to FDA’s foreign offices on technical assistance.
Mr. Christopher (“Chris”) Priddy is the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) India Office International Relations Specialist for Foods and coordinates efforts on international food regulatory and policy issues. Chris served as a regulatory counsel with FDA’s Center for Tobacco Products and as an international policy advisor with FDA’s Office of International Programs representing FDA on World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade Committee issues and other global policy concerns. Prior to joining the FDA, Chris was an attorney with law firms in Washington, D.C. and Seattle, Washington and in-house corporate counsel with a multinational company in Columbus, Ohio. Chris was an international trade policy analyst with the U.S. Department of Commerce. He also taught English on the Japan Exchange and Teaching Program in Obuse, Japan.
Pulse Processing Scenario, Emerging Areas, Strategies and Future Thrust
Pulses form an integral Indian diet. They not only add to the quantity of protein in the diet but also improve its quality by balancing the essential amino acid pattern in the mixed diets. India is a major producer of pulses in the world. A number of varieties of pulses are grown and consumed in a variety of food products after suitable processing. Apart from common pulses like Bengal gram, tur, black gram and green gram, a good number of other pulses, which are generally referred to as minor pulses, like cow pea, horse gram, lentil, moth, bean, etc are also produced and consumed in different parts of the country. The present annual production of pulses is about 16 million tonnes and this has remained almost stagnant for the last 3 decades. As a result, the per capita availability of pulses has fallen from 50 g to about 35 g per head per day. This alarming situation calls for concerted efforts to increase production of pulses and minimizing their post-harvest losses that occur during handling, storage, transportation and processing.
Since traditional methods of dehulling are laborious, drudgery prone, time consuming and greatly dependent on weather conditions, attempts have been made to develop more efficient processing systems and economically viable technologies for milling of pulses. An improved processing methodology and machinery was developed by many organizations including CIAE Bhopal & CFRTI Mysore, which minimized the difficulties faced by traditional pulses processors. The improved method gave higher yields in lesser time of processing and reduction in the cost of processing. The factors responsible for losses and deterioration in the quality of pulses are insects/rodents and microbial infestation due to presence of moisture. Amongst these, the major factor is insects. The losses due to insect activity during storage are the physical losses, loss in carbohydrate and proteins, other nutritional losses besides contamination of the product with uric acid, insect fragments and faecal matter.
The present article gives a brief account of the status of milling of pulses, traditional technologies and new technologies for dehusking of pulses including commercial scale processing, problems encountered by dal milling industry, storage of pulses, quality considerations, emerging areas of research, strategies for post harvest technology and future thrust.
OFFSHORE CAGE CULTURE AN INNOVATIVE WAY FOR FISH PROTEIN PRODUCTION IN INDIA
The unique combination of high quality protein and vital nutrientsmakes fish an important food protein source in many developed and developing countries. The unsaturated fatty acids of fish particularly omega-3 fatty acids (EPA-Eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA-Docosahexaenoic acid) adds to its attractiveness as a source of food for healthy heart. Despite, the higher protein level in fish the world fish production is 140 million tons which is relatively lower than worlds cereals production of 2.2 billion tons. The total fish production of India is 10.16 mmt (2016-17) of which capture fishery contributes 3.59 mmt and culture fishery contributes 6.54 mmt. Since capture fisheries has reached the maximum sustainable level it is highly imperative to expand our culture fishery. With the ever growing demand for fish protein and conflicting interests of land use, off shore fish cage culture unveils the first step towards sustainable aquaculture.
Offshore fish cage culture has the added advantage of higher production with minimal environmental damage when compared to land based aquaculture. Indian coastline (8100 Km) is blessed withits large number of protected bays in coastal watersand offersan ideal site for multispecies fish cage farming and paves way for commercial fish protein production in offshore. Realizing the potential benefits of offshore fish cage farming NIOT has successfully cultured fishes in three different offshore conditions viz. protected bay areas like Olaikuda (TN), completely protected bay area like North Bay (Andaman &Nicobar Islands) and unprotected open sea like Thuplipalem (Andhra Pradesh).NIOT has successfully cultured seven commercially important fishes like Cobia- Rachycentron canadum, seabass- Lates calcarifer milk fish- Chanos chanos; Parrot fish- Scarus ghobban and Rabbit fish- Siganus spp in offshore cages. Among the cultured fishes, Cobia- Rachycentron canadum showed the best performance with a growth rate of 15.4g /day and an average survival rate of 74%. Notably, the fishes attained an average weight of 4 kg in 325 days. The farm gate price of the harvested cobia fetched Rs. 325.00/ kg. The presentation will outline the experiences of multispecies offshore cage culture and the prospects of shaping it into a commercial venture.
Key words: Offshore, cage culture, fish protein
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
Holistic Approaches for Agriculture and Food Industry Cooperation
Based on part of the title of this 8th International Food Convention, the talk will focus on a view of integrated relationships between agriculture and food industry. The exchanges can complete the current approach of food supply based on production systems (farmers), storage and distribution actors (agribusiness), the processing and packaging sector (food and beverage industry), and the retail and market sector.
Agri-food industry incorporates several scientific domains such as food processing, food engineering, food & agribusiness management, food toxicology, food chemistry, food packaging, nutraceuticals foods, and so on. However, a simple integrated view is that food industry depends on agriculture as the input and the market as output. Therefore, the integration of issues of the providers (farmers) and buyers (consumers) might help to work on a gemmation for a sustainable future of agriculture and food industry. A possible methodology is based on Living Lab concept. Developed in geographically limited area, this concept may facilitate policy recommendations particularly if anchored on sound scientific evidence, coupled with local knowledge and experiences in the field, companies and public organizations, and approved by the users including farmers and consumers.
This holistic view has been recently proposed as a roadmap for Indo-French action on “Agronomy and Food Processing” to MHRD (India) and Minister of Higher Education, Research & Innovation (France). The Living Lab project, built around a nexus of 5 items namely “agriculture-food-water-energy-health”, is planned to be implemented in a geographical zone (i.e. Karnataka State), having farmers as end users, and, to make a link between the 5 items, several stakeholders such as:
The presence of different skills in each of stakeholders’ groups is expected to relate specific questions (e.g. on foods) to the 5 items namely agriculture, water, energy, health. Specific initial questions (e.g. on foods) may open to others questions related with the cost of production (energy & water), the impacts on farmers’ income, environmental factors from production of raw material and its processing, or on consumers’ health. Then the answers to the initial specific questions will better affect the end users (e.g. farmers) and the demand of the consumers while fulfilling the present food supply system.
Innovative Solutions for Pesticide Analysis in challenging Matrices and Approaches for Ensuring Quality in Pesticide Analysis
One of the most important analyses with regards to food safety is the determination of pesticides. The seminar provides an overview and recent advances for challenging samples of the multi-residue analysis method, QuEChERS, for the sample preparation and applications in the subsequent GC and HPLC analysis. Special focus will be put on challenging matrices such as fat-rich matrices, intensively colored matrices or dry, complex matrices (herbs, tea, spices, etc.) and how QuEChERS can be modified to successfully clean up these matrices.for pesticide residue analysis. This presentation demonstrates the improved GC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS analysis after the modified clean up steps for a wide range of pesticides of different polarities and classes. Recovery, reproducibility, and background removal of these challenging matrices will be discussed.
Further Quality Assurance in Pesticide Analysis will be addressed by critically discussing the use of regular Reference Materials, Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) and Matrix CRMs for method validation and verification.
Role of Extension in Doubling the Farmer’s Income through Food processing
The revitalized extension services coupled with technological support from the research organizations helped the Indian farmers to produce about 277.49 million tonnes of food grain, 94.4 mt of fruits and 182 mt of vegetables in 2016-17 (2nd advance estimate, PIB, 2018). However, the famers’ income has been stagnated for years. In this context, the government of India has envisaged to double the farmers’ income. Food processing and value addition has been taken as one of the chief areas in achieving its aim as food and food products are the biggest consumption category in India, with spending on food accounting for nearly 21 per cent of India’s GDP and with a market size of $181 billion. As per NSSO report of 2013-14, forty percent of Indian farmers are willing to quit agriculture if the situation allows. Hence, there is a need to make the farming more profitable through paradigm shift from mere agri-production based model to processing and value addition.
In this context, the roles of extension education needs to be revamped beyond transfer of technologies to post harvest management by way of organizational innovation, infrastructure innovation, developing skill development platform such as farmers forum, extension-farmer – scientists meet etc., The extension strategies for promoting food processing and value addition such as (i) cluster based approach, (ii) production planning to marketing of processed food, (iii) farmers collectives, (iv) PPP (v) credit innovation platform, (vi) ICT, (vii) networking (viii) identification of skill set, (ix) convergence of policies/programmes (x) education, (xi) Vertical integration of markets, (xii) establishment of incubation, (xiii) integration of research organization and customized technologies, (xiv) Custom hiring centers(CHC) would facilitate in doubling the income of the farmers by 2022. Several farmers and farmers organizations have proved that the food proceeding sector is a dollar earning sector in agriculture for examples Amla processing by Mr. Amar Singh of Rajasthan, Value addition of milk by Anmol Mahila Dudh Samiti, Value addition of farm produces by the Edava Women’s Association to name a few. Therefore, extension advisory service providers and policy makers need to make sure that the information technology, knowledge, skill, credit, enabling platform, infrastructure, market etc., are easily accessible and available at farmers door step.
Value Chain of Jack Fruit and Business Opportunity
The jackfruit is believed indigenous to the rain forests of the Western Ghats of India. In India average production of jack fruit is 1800 tonnes every year and 75% of total production goes as waste due to its reduced shelf life. In addition to fruits the other byproducts namely strand, seed, rind and core is effectively processed to innovative nutritious jack fruit products. Income growth in developing countries would hasten a dietary transition towards changing food system. Nutrition and health becomes important in global food security. Hence utilization of jackfruit byproducts for development of new health food products would improve income and investment opportunities in food and agriculture business. A value-chain on jack fruit is expected to impact positively not only on income generation (of farmers and food processors) but also ensuring nutritional security of the consumers. It offers avenues for rural employment in general and women in specific as it involves small and medium scale processing enterprises. New business models involving StartUps in jack fruit production and processing across the value chain towards need based agricultural practices and equipments, creating innovative products, supply chain solutions, packaging, processing technology, storage and logistics, food safety, marketing, digital technologies, distribution and retail along with effective waste utilization improve economic growth. To reduce these losses during cutting of the Jackfruit and for safety cutting the Jackfruit cutter is developed. Jack fruit cone and plates are economical alternative to the regular cones made of atta and corn flour, the normal cones made of atta and corn flour contain less protein and little fibre, the cones and plates that we have developed are rich in protein (6.9%) and fibre (12.9%). Integrated Entrepreneurship and Technology based products throughout entire jack fruit value chain for scaling up the innovation to commercialization through development of jackfruit and byproduct based nutritious food products ensures food security and profitable business model.
Biotechnological applications of biopolymers in food
Biopolymers are macromolecules produced from renewable resources and are also known as natural polymers which could be derived during growth phase of living organisms such as microbial systems, higher organisms or chemically synthesized from biological building blocks. Biopolymers play specific role as energy reserve materials and protective agents and help in cell functioning, symbiosis establishment and osmotic adaptation for survival of microbial genera. Alginate, celluloses, carrageenan, gum arabic, levan, starch and plant glycomannans, xylan are examples of commercially produced polysaccharides with a wide array of applications in food and pharmaceutical sector. The present conceptual era of bioeconomy and biorefineries are replete with several applications of biopolymers using the progress achieved in state of-the-art bioprocesses. Microbial biopolymers are a structurally diverse group of biological macromolecules having extensive occurrence in nature. They have attracted a considerable attention due to growing concern about the negative environmental impacts of synthetically produced materials which are endowed with desirable features. Microorganisms are widely used as work horses for the production of various polymers for food uses due to their ease of production and simple nutrient requirements within a short duration. Microbial biopolymers, include exo-polysaccharides, endo-polysaccharides and polyhydroxyalkanoates, which are neutral or acidic in nature and possess a wide range of physical properties and are composed of carbohydrate moieties, non-carbohydrate moieties and uronic acid. Polysaccharides obtained from bacteria, fungi, yeast, plants and animals are important ingredients, among them, microbial polysaccharides have been recognized as nutraceuticals due to their health promoting properties. Bacteria produce several polysaccharides such as xanthan, gellan, curdlan, dextrans, cellulose and alginates and exopolysaccharides by lactic acid bacteria. Especially fungal polysaccharides i.e. scleroglucan, elsinan, lentinan demonstrate potential antitumor, antimicrobial, antioxidant hypercholesterolemic, and hypoglycaemic properties. The biopolymers find food applications in preparation of gels e.g., gellan, curdlan, viscosifying agents e.g., pullulan, dextran, xanthan, drawn into films e.g., pullulan, kefiran, cellulose, levan, starter materials for prebiotic molecules e.g., xylan, levan, cellulose and production of ecofriendly green plastics e.g., PHAs. Microbial polymers such as PHAs, levan, poly glutamic acid and pullulan have been studied at our laboratory for various food applications.
MOLECULAR AUTHENTICATION OF FISH PRODUCTS
One of the most commonly traded food commodities in the World is fish products, as they are highly nutritive. The increasing demand for fish and fishery products among the consumers and the declining trend of fishery resources due to over-exploitation have led to adulteration/ substitution in the international and domestic markets. The consumers are often cheated by giving insufficient, misleading information about the kind of fish products that they purchase, leading to economic fraud. Fish fraud includes a variety of illegal activities done for economic gain that can occur at any point in the supply chain. It typically involves mislabeling the product and also includes transhipment, over-treatment and species substitution. Due to the increasingly complex fish supply chain, it is often unclear where and when fraud actually takes place. About 80% of fish and fishery products on the World market are pretreated: smoked, canned, salted, or pickled fillets, or at least filleted.
Now-a-days, fishery chain traceability is the most important tool for aquatic food safety and for protection of consumer. Innovative and safe technologies are therefore necessary to assess species identification and authenticity testing. Fish species identification is traditionally based on external morphological features, including body shape, pattern of color, scale size and count, number and relative position of fins, number and type of fin rays, or various relative measurements of body parts. Identification of fish species after the removal of external features in fresh (eviscerated, beheaded, skinned, filleted) and processed products (frozen, cooked, fried, marinated, salted, smoked, canned) is difficult, where the morphological characters are absent. Food authentication is the most important criterion to avoid food fraud and conduct a fair trade especially in fish market, where the species identification is difficult.
Recent developments in fish pecies authentication are mainly based on the presence of polymorphism in DNA. DNA presents several advantages over protein in the analysis. The DNA based methods are having repeatability due to the integrity of the DNA, even when it gets partially degraded in heavily processed foods. The DNA could potentially be retrieved from any substrate because it is present in almost all cells of an organism. In addition, because of the degeneracy of the genetic code and the presence of many non-coding regions, the DNA provides much more information than proteins do. A number of molecular methods have been developed and optimized for the authentication of processed fish products. The use of molecular technology to differentiate different species of fish has received much attention in recent years. The majority of work has focused on using PCR to amplify the specific areas of DNA of interest. Some methods include the use of PCR along with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), or single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). PCR-RFLP is one of the widely adopted methods used to differentiate the species based on the difference in the lengths of restriction fragments of DNA sequence. Although species-specific variation can be analyzed by PCR amplification, it is difficult to differentiate the species when the variations are too small. PCR-RFLP is a method used to overcome this problem by the digestion of PCR amplicons with endonuclease restriction enzymes followed by the analysis of fragments using gel electrophoresis to develop species-specific restriction profiles. When compared to other methods, RFLP has been widely used in fish product authentication due to a number of advantages such as rapidity, simplicity, reproducibility and less cost.
In our TNJFU University Referral Laboratory for Fish Quality Monitoring and Certification, a novel PCR-RFLP protocol was developed to authenticate four shrimp products (raw, frozen, cooked, fried and canned) of commercial importance belonging to the family, Penaeidae viz. Penaeus monodon, P. semisulcatus, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Litopenaeus vannamei by targeting 16S rRNA/tRNAval and 12S rRNA regions using a single restriction enzyme, Tsp5091. Five different species of groupers viz., Epinephelus areolatus, E. bleekeri, E. faveatus, E. longispinis and E. undulosus were authenticated using PCR-RFLP method by targeting the 16S rRNA gene region using three selected restriction enzymes viz. SduI, BciVI, and Sau3AI. PCR-RFLP technique was also developed for the identification of five different species of sardines viz. Sardinella longiceps, S. gibbosa, S. albella, S. fimbriata and S. sirm by targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt cyt b) gene using two enzymes, HinfI and MnlI.
In another study, different PCR based methods such as PCR-RFLP, PCR-SSCP, PCR-FINS and PCR-AFLP protocols were developed to authenticate nine snapper species viz. Lutjanus fulvus, L. gibbus, L. lemniscatus, L. argentimaculatus, L. rivulatus, L. quinquelineatus, L. fulviflamma, L. madras and L. decussatus of commercial importance in the region of Thoothukudi, South India. Five different tuna species namely Auxis thazard, Euthynnus affinis, Katsuwonus pelamis, Thunnus albacares, T. obesus and three seerfish species viz. Scomberomorus commersoni, S. guttatus, S. lineolatus of commercial importance were differentiated by AFLP method using with enzyme EcoR1digestion and five selective primers, E-AGT, E-AGA, E-ACC, E-ACT and E-ACA. The research experience, hence, showed that among the molecular techniques, the PCR-RFLP technique can be reliably used to authenticate the processed fish products by food quality control and inspection agencies for enforcing labeling regulations.
Dr. Kaliramesh Siliveru (Kali) is an assistant professor of Grain Processing in the department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University. He received his B.S. in Food Science (2010) from Acharya N. G Ranga Agricultural University, India and M.S. in Food Process Engineering (2012) from Indian Institute of Food Processing Technology, India. He received his PhD in Grain Science, in 2016 from Kansas State University. His PhD dissertation work is on “particle cohesion and development of simulation models for sifting behavior of wheat flours”. Prior to his joining in the Kansas State University, he was a research associate at USDA-ARS, Manhattan. His areas of research includes grain processing and milling, process modeling and simulation, particle technology, grain storage, and food safety.
Modeling the wheat flour particle separation process during sifting
Background & Objectives: Sifting or size based separation of flour particle is an important operation in wheat milling process. During the sifting process, the flour particles often behave as imperfect solids with discontinuous flow and tend to form agglomerates due to inter-particle cohesion. Inter-particle cohesion in flours is highly dependent on the particle physical, chemical, and surface properties and influences the sifting process. In general, wheat is classified as either hard wheat or soft wheat with inherent differences in chemical composition. Noticeable loss in throughput has been observed during size based separation of soft wheat flour compared to that of hard wheat flour due to differences in inter-particle cohesion. In this research, our objectives are to develop a prediction model for wheat flour flow behavior during sifting process and also to simulate the flour particle separation process using discrete element method (DEM) model.
Methods & Results: This study presents the development of a discrete element method (DEM) model to predict the size based separation of wheat flours at 10% and 14% moisture contents (wet basis (w.b)). DEM models of the size based separation process were developed on using the Hertz-Mindlin contact model. To account for the inter-particle cohesion, the JKR (Johnson-Kendall-Roberts) model was coupled with the contact model. The size based separation of hard red winter (HRW) and soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours were simulated and then validated using lab scale experimental trials. The predicted modeling results of percent mass retained over the screens and the sieve blinding time was comparable with the experimental results. The standard error of prediction (SEP) values ranged from 0.13-8.27, which indicated that this approach will be useful to predict the size based separation of cohesive fine particles.
Conclusions: The developed model will be useful to estimate the sieve blinding time during the sifting process.
Significance and Impact of the Study: The developed model will be instrumental in developing best management practices for prevention of sieve blinding, which will reduce the losses in throughput during the soft wheat milling process.
Keywords: Wheat flour, Sifting, Discrete Element Method Model, Particle Separation, Sieve Blinding
Government Nutrition Programmes for Women and Child Development
India has been grappling with the problem of malnutrition for decades now and the nutritional status of India’s population still remains compromised. The triple burden of malnutrition in the form of stunting and wasting, anaemia, and obesity is evident from recent reports. Children, pregnant, and lactating women are the most affected with the retardation of cognitive and physical growth, increased susceptibility to infections which ultimately affects productivity of the country.
The National and the State governments are implementing a number of poverty alleviation programmes for the overall socioeconomic development of the country. The enactment of National Food Security Act of 2013 institutionalised the importance of food and nutrition. The Government has devised several national nutrition intervention programs under different government ministries. These programs are already in place and working for the social welfare of people. POSHAN Abhiyaan (National Nutrition Mission) is a flagship programme of the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD), Government of India, which ensures convergence with various programmes i.e., Anganwadi Services, Pradhan MantriMatruVandanaYojana (PMMVY), Scheme for Adolescent Girls (SAG) of MWCD Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), National Health Mission (NHM), Swachh-Bharat Mission, Public Distribution System (PDS), Department Food & Public Distribution, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) and Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation etc.
India already has its share of experiences with community workers in the form of Anganwadi workers (AWW) and Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) under the Ministry of Women and Child Development (M/o WCD) and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (M/o HFW) respectively. AWW and ASHA have been entrusted to provide adequate healthcare to rural people and educate them on issues of preventive and promotional health care. However, their performance has been below expectations for a number of reasons. These relate to issues in the selection process, lack of clarity of roles, low capacities and skill-sets, excessive workload, weak supervision, low incentives, and lack of job security.
In spite of all the available nutritional programs, food security at the household level is determined by a more complex array of factors than agricultural production, including local prices (of food and other goods), income, and an effective trade and transport infrastructure. Concerted effort and a convergence by all the programs is required with particular emphasis on gender equity. More attention is required to rural areas, scheduled caste and tribe people, very young children between 0-2 years and the girl child. High levels of capacity are required with a coherent investment in reducing under nutrition. Intersectoral coordination between the various departments like sanitation, water, agriculture, women's status etc., are necessary. Any weak links in the chain can undermine all investments. Therefore, a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system is necessary for progress on Nutrition indicators.
Collaborative work is a very valuable tool that not only accelerates the progress but also enhances the indicators output. CFTRI, is one of the 42 national research laboratories and the institute is engaged in research in the production and handling of food grains and products, fruits and vegetables etc. The institute develops technologies to increase efficiency and reduce postharvest losses, find new sources of food products for dietary diversification etc. The NIPCCD organisation working on the social issues and carrying the technology and research to the field level. Such networking and cooperation are extremely valuable for sharing information on new approaches and resources but also acquiring specialised and new expertise in improving the nutritional status of the population through food technology and dietary approaches.
NRDC Facilitation Services for Entrepreneurs and Start-ups
National Research Development Corporation is a premier technology transfer company established by the Government of India under section 25 of the companies Act to act as a link between scientific laboratories and industrial establishments. Over the years, the Corporation has transferred large number of technologies which are commercialized by the industry successfully.
NRDC has established time-tested mechanism for technology sourcing, evaluating, value-adding and successfully commercializing them. The sources of technology or technical know-how are National R&D organizations under various Ministries of Govt. of India, Institutes, Universities, Colleges, etc. located pan India.
Technology value-addition are facilitated by the Corporation through the Program for Development of Technologies for Commercialization (PDTC) and Program for Inspiring Inventors and Innovators (PIII) which are grant-in-aid schemes of the Govt. of India.
The value added technologies are offered to the entrepreneurs, start-ups and industries for commercial exploitation through the print and electronic media. The Corporation has concluded nearly 5000 license agreements over the years.
The Corporation is Head Quartered at New Delhi. It has its Outreach Offices in Bengaluru and Vishakhapatnam catering to its clients in South India.
NATIONAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION
(A Government of India Enterprise under Ministry of Science & Technology), 20-22, Zamroodpur Community Centre, Kailash Colony Extension, New Delhi 110048
Phone: +91-11-29240401 to 08; Fax: +91-11-29240409 & 10
E-mail: WRITE2@NRDC.IN; Website: http://WWW.NRDCINDIA.COM/
NRDC Outreach Offices:
MoMSME-NRDC IPFC @ Bengaluru: 2nd Floor, Dept of Agricultural Marketing, Cooperation & Business Management., University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru 560065
MoMSME-NRDC IPFC @ Vishakhapatnam: 1st Floor, Sunrise Incubation Hub, Sunrise Tower, Hill #3, Plot #13 & 14, Madurwada, Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam 530045
Publishing your research in Open Access Journals – Overcoming the Myths and Misunderstandings
The Open Access movement, active now for more than a decade aims to provide free, online access to peer-reviewed scholarly research. The movement has gained momentum in the last 5 years but unfortunately, what prevents many authors from adopting the OA route as the default publishing option are some common misunderstandings such as - OA journals are not peer reviewed and hence publish low quality science, all or most OA journals charge article processing charges (APC) which are too expensive and that Impact Factor defines the quality of the journal and OA journals have low IF. In addition to this there is the common myth that publishing research in OA journals will not be useful for career improvement. Lastly, some authors may believe that to publish OA, they have to submit their article to an OA journal while in reality they could publish their article in any journal they like and still make it OA by depositing a version into the institutional/discipline specific repository. While most publishers allow a version of the article to be made OA, many authors are reluctant to have to deal with copyright and license issues when depositing a copy of their work into a repository, find it time-consuming and choose to avoid it. The speaker will talk about these common misunderstandings related to publishing in OA journals and will aim to provide information and facts to quell these misbeliefs.
Traditional foods from high altitude region: An opportunity for new start-ups
Consumer-driven demand for natural product for health, wellness and nutrition lead to the phenomenal growth of the traditional food market and hence assuring the availability of quality raw material, development of formulation and its scientific validation. Phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables have achieved immense significant owing to increasing evidence which signifies their activity for antioxidants and prevention of chronic diseases. A number of traditional food are prepared and consumed by people in high altitude regions for centuries and forms apart of socio-culture life of the region. Traditional Himalayan foods are in rich in biodiversity and have therapeutic potential and are categorized as fermented and non-fermented foods. however, the production of these traditional foods has been limited to the local level. In last decades, due to fast urbanization people are shifting from traditional food habits to commercial fast food which resulted as a decline in scaling and consumption of traditional food practices but recently the paradigms shift towards healthier and traditional food cuisines among the urban society. Hull-less barley, maize, buckwheat, red rice, black peas and millets are the major food crops cultivated in Himalayan region. CSIR-IHBT has developed various food products such as buckwheat based snacks bar and noodles which manage the celiac disease and gluten sensitivity with more vitamins minerals and antioxidants. Institute also initiate the activity to preserve ready to eat Kangri Dham traditional cuisine of Himachal Pradesh. It possesses prebiotic and other health-promoting properties and having shelf-life up to 12 months. Furthermore, nutritionally enriched fruit bar has been developed to combat malnutrition among women and children using locally available Himalayan bioresources. It is low in fat and rich in iron, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C and antioxidants that meets 40 % RDA of the iron and calcium. These traditional resources from Himalayan region have a great potential for income generation opportunity for new start-ups. The traditional foods will explore new market segment that will establish the niche of traditional food in the country.
Effect of processing and storage on phytochemicals of fruits and vegetables
Numerous pre- and postharvest factors influence the level of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables. Various phenomena act together and determine final concentration of phytochemical compounds. Variation in genetic make up of varieties, degradation reactions like oxidation, cleavage etc; regeneration of polyphenols, inactivation of PPO, absence of oxygen, mixing of solid and liquid fraction before extraction of phenolics in canned fruits and vegetables results in higher quantities of phenolics. Drying provides more suitable conditions for degradation reactions like availability of oxygen, suitable temperature etc. Phenolics undergo degradation which may be due to oxidation, cleavage or mediated by enzyme PPO. β-carotene is a very reactive compound due to its highly unsaturated structure, which renders it electronically rich by delocalization of π-electrons. Consequently, it is also prone to degradation and more precisely to isomerisation, especially at high temperature, and oxidation, due to the occurrence of oxygen in food. Oxidation of β-carotene can be either autoactivated (autoxidation), or induced by light (photo-oxidation) or catalysed by enzymes (enzymatic oxidation). There are reports that heating increases the chemical extractability of phytochemical compounds because of release of phytochemicals from chromoplasts leading to an increment in their concentration. Disruption of cellular structure during processing results in release of bound phytochemicals and enhances their leaching during extraction.
Keywords: Phytochemicals, processing, polyphenols
Department of Biotechnology (DBT) under the Ministry of Science and Technology, set up in 1986, has infused fresh momentum to the developments in modern biology and biotechnology. The Department, in the past 30 years, has witnessed discerned maturation from a nascent sector to a sunrise industry, making outstanding achievements in the growth and application of biotechnology in the areas of agriculture, healthcare, animal aquatic sciences, food and nutrition and sustainability of bio-resources, energy and environment and also towards fostering innovations and entrepreneurship ecosystem in the country.
There are several schemes and programs through which R&D and Innovation in biotechnology/life sciences is promoted. ( www.dbtindia.nic.in) The Department through Food and Nutrition program emphasizes addressal of micronutrient deficiencies, severe acute malnutrition, food fortification, probiotics for human health and well-being, food safety, molecular detection of GM traits in foods, development of low cost foods/ supplements and utilization of agricultural residues for value added products and capacity building in Food Science and Nutrition Biology through a defined Public Health, Food and Nutrition programme.
Biofuel/Bioenergy is one of the key areas of Department where R&D is promoted to develop bioenergy from waste material like waste agricultural biomass, municipal solid waste, flue gas etc. Also various bio refinery technologies are promoted to produce value added products from waste /by products. Many novel biofuel technologies have been developed and being demonstrated and transferred to industries. DBT is the nodal agency to coordinate global initiatives like Mission Innovation and Biofuture programs to accelerate clean energy innovation to make it affordable and accessible to all.
DBT has been implementing many schemes/programs to promote R&D and Innovation in Biotechnology by funding research proposals, creating Centre of Excellence, Capacity building through Fellowship/Awards and International Cooperation.
Mr. Manilal P
A post-graduate in Operations Research and Computer Applications from Cochin University of Science & Technology, began his career in CSIR-CFTRI using a Mini Computer, PDP-11 in 1984. Over the years, the major domain of activities has been software solutions, Database Applications, R&D Management, Scientific Computations and Entrepreneurial Solutions. The major database project worked during 2004-12, Traditional Knowledge and Digital Library (TKDL) got large visibility due to its sheer size of around 2300 Indian cuisines, first time in the country. Currently associated with major entrepreneurial solutions such as FreeTech Portal, SMECorner, Incubation & Accelerator Facilities, Skill development and Big Data platform. He has published over 9 papers in peer reviewed journals and guided over 20 students B.Tech/MCA students for their Project work.
Enabling Entrepreneurship for Startups through Incubation and Skill Initiatives
Incubation centre has been one of the major policy shifts with public R&D Institutions in the country and in this direction, CSIR is steering the transformation of its 37 lab into innovation hubs. CSIR-CFTRI established one of such facilities, NPIC-CIF in 2016 itself and the centre has grown to support over 10 incubatees providing and exciting ecosystem for entrepreneurs and startups. Added to, it is the diverse skill development avenues offered by CSIR-CFTRI to have entrepreneurs with skills to compete in the age of market integration. Insights, challenges and the journey towards establishing the Institute as a major destination for Innovation and Skill initiatives will be touched upon in the presentation.
Sanjay Puri is a global entrepreneur whose powerful connectivity in government and business places him at the forefront of thought leadership and advisement as he challenges existing industries with disruptive innovations.
Puri is the founder and CEO of Wellisen, a break-through nutraceuticals and personal care company committed to ameliorating world hunger and advancing health and wellness across the globe. Wellisen has advisory alliances and research partnerships in the U.S. and India, product-based technologies, certified product offerings, internal sourcing and production, as well as an internal research and development (R&D) team that is among the best in the business. Wellisen manufactures Phycocyanin, a natural blue derivative of Spirulina, through its proprietary extraction process at its state-of-the-art facility in Mysuru, India. Like Spirulina, which is considered to be one of the most nutrient-rich superfoods on Earth, Phycocyanin is known for its numerous and profound health-promoting benefits. Wellisen is one of India’s largest producers of Spirulina, cultivating across 45 acres under strict hygienic control. Wellisen’s diverse portfolio includes other algal products, a full range of emerging applications, and a premium-quality cosmetics line set to upend the industry. Wellisen offers customized formulations and proprietary solutions, and partners, invests or incubates with consumer product companies that share its high standards. Wellisen has U.S. offices in Reston, Virginia near Washington, DC.
Puri is also the founder of Autonebula, a connected vehicle incubator/accelerator; and ACEL360, a multi-module accelerator for diverse companies seeking to navigate Federal processes. Puri is a highly sought-after speaker and media contributor. He has presented at the Wharton India Forum, Harvard Business School, National War College, Heritage Foundation, International Leadership Foundation, United States Institute of Peace, Duke India Business Forum, Kellogg School of Management, etc. He has been featured on CNN, BBC and National Public Radio (NPR). He has been published and quoted in Forbes, The New York Times, The Washington Times, The Hindu, Inc. 42, The Afternoon DC, Indian Express, Hindustan Times, The Times of India, etc. He has hosted numerous conferences and roundtable discussions in cooperation with the U.S. Senate and U.S. House of Representatives, and moderated Q&A sessions on Capitol Hill. He has testified before the U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs as an expert witness on U.S.-India relations, trade and energy. During Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to the U.S., Puri organized key political and corporate meetings. He continues to lead business delegations to India and actively engages public officials at federal, state and local levels of government.
Puri founded Optimos Inc., a strategy and enterprise information technology company that was sold in 2014. He started his entrepreneurial journey in 1994 through a grant from the National Institute of Health (NIH) where he led a team that used artificial intelligence techniques to diagnose patients with Alzheimer’s. His clients have included the Library of Congress, Federal Reserve Bank, U.S. Mint, and the National Labor Relations Board. Puri founded the Alliance for U.S.-India Business (AUSIB) and the United States India Political Action Committee (USINPAC) to bring about outcomes that matter to India and Indian Americans. Puri holds an MBA in Finance and Investments from George Washington University. He has been recognized in the U.S. Congressional Record for his achievements.
Ingredient Innovation – key driver for product innovation and renovation
The food processing industry is one of the fastest growing and an important contributor to Indian economy. It is one of the largest industries in India and ranks fifth in terms of production, consumption and exports. The contribution of food processing industry to GDP has been growing faster when compared with the agriculture and allied sector. In the past few years a definitive pattern in food innovation is unfolding itself. The trend shows that any innovation or renovation across segments has been made possible by innovation in ingredients. The way Indians shop today is entirely different from what it was. Food innovation and ingredient innovation must go hand-in-hand. The innovators are expected to be ready with a vision and proper anticipation of consumer demand in future. Novelty in innovations as well as innovations in recipe re-engineering is the new mantra for holistic growth and sustainability in processed food world. Only then can our products find a way into a consumer’s shopping bag!
Manoj has 20+ years experience in Market Research and is an Executive Director at Nielsen. At Nielsen, he has played many roles ranging from generalists to specialist and now helping large clients to spot profitable growth opportunities
Manoj spent 9 years in the Middle East which gave him a good exposure to the developed and developing countries! More importantly, thought diversity through cultural diversity
Manoj is passionate about the latest statistical techniques and technology! He firmly believes it helps to connect the dots and uncover hidden insights. His paper on the usage of artificial intelligence to mine social media data has won an award at the recently held MRSI conference. Manoj has won several internal and external awards for his contribution. He regularly exchanges consumer and shopper understanding at various forums
Winning with Innovations in Foods
Packaged food is around Rs. 200 billion business and growing at a healthy double-digit rate. In fact, it is growing at a higher rate than non-food consumer goods categories. Multiple macroeconomic factors and evolving consumer needs are shaping foods consumption. Number of new products in foods is higher compared to non-food. Nielsen insights reveal that innovation is an integral driver of incremental growth and essential to profitable survival. At every industry forum, innovation is called out as ‘the’ growth opportunity by experts, and emphasis laid on what can be done to drive the innovation agenda.
Innovation may not feel like an existential mandate today, because of the share of wallet commanded by products from established brands and the comparatively small percentage of sales generated by innovation. But if businesses fail to remake themselves in line with emerging consumer tastes, technological realities and business models of the 21st century, they will see growth stall and margins erode. Companies also risk losing the battle for world-class talent, and the overall innovation capability, already fragile, will collapse. Additionally, market cap will decline until companies are driven into consolidation and industry transformation, eventually leading them to join the ranks of the once-great companies that simply failed to change fast enough.
Based on thousands of food innovation tested over a period of time, Nielsen has come out with aspects that differentiate winners from losers. Manoj would be sharing key themes in food innovation that could help the manufacturers launch new products successfully and unlock growth opportunity
Triglyceride Profile of Vegetable Oil as a Basis for Identifying Adulteration of Edible Oils
Adulteration of an important commodity like edible oil is a menace to the society affecting public health. Adulteration is done mainly for economic reason, by mixing cheap oil (edible and nonedible) or used/fried oil with good oil. It is necessary to have an appropriate check to control such spurious practices. Though Regulatory authority recommended some indicative tests for determining the presence of some specific oils, but these tests are not quantitative. These indicative tests are either based on very specific fatty acids or some minor components. In recent time, more advanced and scientific adulteration of edible oil is happening in India overlapping physicochemical properties of oils. The available methodology or indicative test fails to detect such intelligent adulteration practices. At this juncture, it is necessary to upgrade technology for detecting adulteration by developing new methods.
Edible oils and fats are primarily consists of a complex mixture of triglycerides (TAG) due to the presence of a large number of individual TAGs arising out of positioning a group of fatty acids over the three position of glycerol backbone. Fortunately, such complex mixture of TAGs present in oils and fats acquire very unique pattern specific to type of fatty acids present in the oil. This is evident in the database of TAG molecular species generated on some commonly consumed edible oils in India, like sunflower, soybean, groundnut, coconut, rice bran, palmolein, palm kernel oil, cottonseed, mustard etc. Any deviation in the content of some major TAG from the profile data base will indicate tampering of natural composition of TAG. On the other hand, each vegetable oil has some characteristic TAG molecular species, like trilaurin (LaLaLa) in coconut oil, triricinolein (RRR) in castor oil, triolein (OOO) in olive oil, palmitic-oleic-palmitic (POP) and palmitic-oleic-oleic (POO) type glycerides in palm/palmolein, erucic-linoleic-erucic (ELE) and erucic-linolenic-erucic (ELnE) type glycerides in mustard oil, etc. This has opened up the opportunity to look for such marker TAG molecule in edible oil in order to identify and quantify adulteration of edible oils. This knowledge-base of TAG molecular species has not been attempted to identify and quantify oils in an oil blend and also for adulteration. As a case study, some of the well-practiced adulteration of edible oil, like palm kernel oil and palm oil in coconut oil, cottonseed oil in sunflower or soybean oil, palm oil in rice bran and groundnut oil, rice bran oil in Mustard oil, etc. will be discussed from their TAG profiles.
Workflows for food analysis using Liquid Chromatography High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
The innate complexity of the food sample is the main challenge in food analysis. Food products contain an assortment of chemical compounds, from proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and vitamins (healthy compounds) to residues and contaminants (unhealthy compounds). Recent advancements in LC-MS/MS technology, including hybrid systems like quadrupole-quadrupole Time-of-Flight (QTOF), now provide the ability to perform targeted and non-targeted screening in food samples on a routine basis. The advantage of using High resolution mass spectrometry ( HRMS) platforms for food analysis include the collection of full scan MS spectra can provide a greater insight in to the sample composition, simultaneous generation of product ion spectra which can be used for comparison of theoretical and measured fragmentation pattern of the identified molecules , possibility to do the retrospective data analysis and even quantitation experiments can be performed. In addition to this the use of differential mobility technology to the HRMS platforms gives and additional edge in improving selectivity in the separation of isomeric molecules. This presentation will focus on few of the examples on the use of LC-HRMS analysis for the analysis of pesticide/Antibiotic residues in food matrices, possibility of the analysis of fruit juices on the analysis of bioactive components and finally the ability of differential mobility mass spectrometry for the separation of isomeric compounds which can be used for the food analysis.
Dr Shashank Joshi is a consulting Endocrinologist at Lilavati Hospital, Mumbai. He is considered by many as one of the most prominent practituioners. He was honoured by the Govt of India in 2014 by bestowing on him the Padma Shri, the 4th highest civilian award for his services in the field of medicine. He is currently the President, Association of Physicians in India and the Indian Academy of Diabetes and Hypertension Society of India. He is also a prolific writer with over 500 research publications
HEALTH CHALLENGES AMONG INDIANS AND SOLUTIONS THROUGH MOLECULAR NUTRITION
India is rapidly becoming urbanised. By 2030, around 40% of the country's population will live in urban areas. With this rapid socio-economic, demographic, nutritional and health transition; the country is facing a dual nutrition burden. While issues of poverty, under-nutrition and communicable diseases still exist, it is increasingly facing additional challenges related to obesity and a rise in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases like diabetes and high blood pressure. A decrease in intake of coarse cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables coupled with declining levels of physical activity have resulted in escalated levels of obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Currently India has the second largest number of diabetics and very high mortality rates due to CVD. Infact Asian Indians have been found to develop CVD at a much younger age than other ethnicities. Recent data shows that 13% to 50% of the urban population and 8%–38% of the rural population suffers from obesity. Molecular nutrition has emerged as a new area in nutritional science following both advances in molecular biology and requirements for explaining the individual’s responses to nutrients at a molecular level. Nutrients and other food components contain important bioactives or their precursors that are key in affecting gene and protein activities and may affect fundamental processes such as DNA repair, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. How certain nutrients interact at molecular level to influence health and susceptibility to disease shall be covered during the presentation.
Current and future wellbeing of a nation depends significantly on health of the population as well as a safe and secure food system. In the backdrop of achieving food security and nutrition security, it is important to leverage innovation, technology, development and sustenance. CSIR-CFTRI’s technologies have been aimed at accomplishing sustainability of food security in our country.
CSIR-CFTRI being one of the largest R&D institutions devoted to Food Science and Technology, has dedicated itself to R&D activities in the area of food processing aligning with the policies, priorities and prerogatives of the national requirement. Major areas of contribution include:
R&D work at the Institute has resulted in the development of several food-based technologies, novel specialty foods and machinery/equipment. CSIR-CFTRI has developed, over the years, more than 400 food processing technologies, under different verticals and these have been widely commercialized by the MSMEs. ‘Amul’, the infant food formula based on buffalo milk, low lactose milk, ready mixes for traditional foods, instant foods, food for diabetics, geriatrics, enteral food, energy foods for nutrition intervention programmes, weaning foods, fortified foods, spirulina etc. are only a few examples. Hot soaking- steaming process of parboiling, process for artificial ageing of rice, oleoresins, process for ready-to-cook cut vegetables, VCO, novel turmeric processing methods, bottling of sugarcane juice, neera, coffee, Mini dhal mill, leaf cup machines are only a few of the success stories. Machines for dosa, idli, vada, chapati and ragi dumpling have transformed the landscape of bulk production of the traditional foods.
CSIR- CFTRI has expanded the food basket of the country by way of reducing post- harvest losses, utilizing newer agri-resources, creating base for by-products/ waste utilization. Acting as the research hub, Institute is fostering innovation in the food science and technology space. To match the changing demands and market requirements, Institute is regularly updating the knowledgebase and creating new technologies on a regular basis. The Institute also has created the eco-system required for fostering R&D in food processing in the country. It has provided the required trained human resources, technical services and quality evaluation protocols, all of which have garnered momentum required for the establishment and sustenance of food processing industries in the country. This has helped in transformation of the food production paradigm in the country to food processing paradigm and today food industry is poised to grow at a CAGR of 11%. All the efforts of the Institute have added value to the produce, created quality products, job opportunities and wealth to the nation.
“Does your investment in food safety learning and development programs work?”
“Developing people’s capabilities, skills and competencies in food safety is essential for securing the brands and reputation of a company and ensuring its growth. Many times food safety issues occur when employees are not properly trained or training is neglected. Developing people in food safety raises performance standards and assists in the production of safe food. It also supports companies in becoming trusted, more efficient, competitive and profitable.
Employee development is central to the successful implementation of food safety programs and it is widely held in the industry that there is a strong correlation between an organisation’s food safety performance and the knowledge of individuals within these organisations. People within the supply chain ultimately drive the success of the value chain but food safety learning and development programs sometimes fail to meet organisational objectives and participant expectations.
Experience and results of several studies have shown that key criteria need to be met for implementing successful food safety learning and development programs. This talk will focus on these characteristics and will illustrate through examples how guiding principles can be implemented in designing and deploying programs for people development towards excellence in food safety”
Reference methods, described in regulatory standards, based on traditional culture media has been widely used in food microbiology Laboratory owing to its low cost, good sensitivity & comprehensive information provided. On the other hand, traditional methods take long time, several days to give result until the target organisms multiply to visible colonies plus the fact that it is labor intensive in terms of Media preparation, inoculation of plates, colony counting, biochemical characterization according to the test performed. Despite this dominance, recent industry reports suggest that traditional microbiology culture is in the decline stage of its life cycle, whilst other techniques like immunoassay, and molecular techniques are in mature and growth phases respectively.
Rapid methods and automation in microbiology are dynamic fields and are constantly moving forward in helping to solve applied microbiology and food safety issues. Those methods address the utilization of microbiological, chemical, biochemical, biophysical, immunological and serological methods for the study of improving isolation, early detection, characterization and enumeration of microorganisms and their products in food and environmental samples. Description of several technologies with future development trend will be given in this talk.
The adaptation of rapid methods requires validation approval from organizations like AOAC, MicroVal, AFNOR and choices can be made according to the criteria for selection like Manual or automated systems, Time-to-result, Budget for investment, Laboratory workload etc.
Merck company has been committed and serve food customers with HIGH quality and differentiating products for both traditional and rapid methods for the Food Microbiology testing.”
Effect of concentration on Creep-recovery and modeling of pearl millet starch
Background & Objectives: India is the largest producer of Pearl millet area wise as well as production wise across the world. Pearl millet is available in different varieties and its starch content varies from 62.8-70.5% with an amylose content of 05-28%. Rheological studies also aid in predicting and describing the structural changes of foods during different unit operations.
Method(s) and Results: Starch from a pearl millet variety viz. ProAgro 9444 was studied for creep recovery characteristics as affected by concentration (3-15%). Applicability of Cox-Merz rule was also studied. The shear thinning behavior was observed with the flow behavior index between 0.235 and 824. The consistency coefficient and apparent viscosity increased with concentration of starch. Slight dependency of G' and G" was observed on frequency. At 3% starch concentration, viscous character predominated at higher frequencies, whereas other starch concentrations reflected more elastic behavior. Burger model at higher concentrations and Maxwell model at lower concentration was followed by Creep compliance.
Conclusions: In the frequency range (0.1-100 rad/s), the starch dispersion exhibited like a gel. Values of tan δ> 0.1 suggested weak gel like behavior of starch dispersions at all the concentrations. The pearl millet starch can be used effectively for products requiring more elastic behavior such as packaging films.
Significance and Impact of the Study: By using starch nanoparticles from the same source the compatibility problem between the nanoparticles and the matrix material could be solved, in addition they can reinforce the film structure. The rheological properties of Pearl millet starch behave with the starch concentration which would further help in development of the biofilm to improve their mechanical and thermal properties.
Conflict of interest disclosure: The author declares no conflict of interest, in terms of scientific, financial and personal.
Keywords: Rheology, rheological models, viscosity, fluids
“Food Safety Standards and Regulations in context to public health”
FSS Act, 2006 is responsible for development of food standards and implementation of safety and hygiene control by the Food Business Operators during the manufacturing process. The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI), which has been established under the FSS Act for laying down science based standards for articles of food and to regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption. The Act also aims to establish a single reference point for all matters relating to food safety and standards, by moving from multi-level, multi-departmental control to a single line of command. Towards this agricultural produce should be free from physical, chemical and biological hazards which are being used in from street food to packaged food products. To achieve these goals, they have to adopt an effective food safety management system (ISO:22000) including good food handling practices, good agriculture practices, good animal husbandry practices, good hygienic practices, good transportation practices, good retail practices and HACCP.
The implementation of FSS Act resulting and ensuring the availability of safe and quality food to consumer. This is possible by defining standards and regulations to the food products. Once they are defined, the same should be implemented by food business operators and available to consumer; and verified by the regulatory authorities or monitoring organizations as safe and quality food. Food Authority through the Scientific Committees / Panels and risk management working to reduce the number of non-standardized food products in the market. Recent years several new initiatives, including R & D Scheme funding the projects in the area of Food Safety. National authorities have the responsibility, that toxic chemicals such as heavy metals, aflatoxins, antibiotic, pesticide residues and other contaminates, are not present in food at level that may adversely affect the health of consumers.
Advances in technological developments, coupled with free- trade have necessitated the Food Legislations to be on a dynamic track. Food quality and safety cannot be achieved in isolation but can be achieved through collaborated and collective efforts of consumer, industry and Government. There is need of exchange and dissemination of knowledge across the countries by every means like food testing laboratory, capacity building, training, awareness to stake holders, recognition of certification bodies and harmonization of food standards with international standards.
Nutritional Challenges in India- Impediments and Remedies
India is experiencing dual challenge of undernutrition and overnutrition, majorly contributing to non-communicable diseases. India is undergoing a rapid socioeconomic, demographic, and nutritional and health transition. Undernutrition continues to be persistently high in India and remains a challenge. Undernutrition could either be due to deficiency of protein or micronutrients. There is a major gap between the quality & quantity of food consumption and food requirement to meet nutritional needs resulting in poor physical and mental growth & development, reduced immunity and reproductivity.
Some of the major nutritional challenges in India are high levels of adult undernutrition affecting one-third of the country's adults, high levels of child undernutrition, affecting almost every second child, high levels of maternal undernutrition, leading to low birth-weights, inappropriate and sub-optimal infant and young child feeding and caring practices, issues relating to prevention of illnesses and access to healthcare, low awareness regarding nutrition and use of local nutritious food including sources of nutrients, inadequate attention to health and nutrition of adolescent girls, inadequate access to safe drinking water and proper sanitation facilities.
Availability, accessibility, absorption of nutrients and cultural preferences are other major challenges in nutrition.
Nutrition and Health education through welfare programs and technologies should be used as a vital mode of communication to create nutritional awareness especially on hygiene, sanitation, nutrition in pregnancy & lactation, anaemia, vitamin A and Iodine deficiency. Benefits of eating local, regional, seasonal and Traditional food must be explained. This in long run can also help in better adherence. Advising balanced nutrition to pregnant mothers, encouraging exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, avoidance of catch-up obesity in children, maintenance of correct growth velocity under guidance of physicians and avoid excess nutrition to stunted children are important points to highlight.
Strategies that can be used are Growth Monitoring and Promotion, Immunization, health checkups and referral (for children who are sick or severely undernourished can be referred to health facilities).
Anaemia is most common in all age groups of adolescent girls to the extent of 20-25% irrespective of the social class. Heightened rise in anaemia is seen especially during menarche when the female starts losing 0.5mg/d by way of menstruation. Dietary intervention is needed along with supplementation in case it’s severe. The Ministry of Health and Family welfare under the Poshan Abhiyaan and the National Health Mission has taken the initiative of Anaemia Mukt Bharat
The ideal approach to tackle micronutrient deficiency would be to provide supplements only where and when absolutely necessary, fortify foods where the technology is simple, sustainable and demonstrably safe, and push steadily for a diet-based approach involving a variety of locally available foods.
India has the second highest number of obese children in the world, with 14.4 million reported cases, according to a new study published in The New England Journal of Medicine (2017).
Increasing technologies, urbanization and sedentary profession have become the major contributors to the lifestyle disorders like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus in population including children because of imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Overweight and obesity are caused by numerous social and environmental factors that influence people's food habits and physical activity.
Hence, behavioural changes, encouraging healthy eating and increasing physical activity should be the important strategies in tackling these issues. To overcome these issues, following measures can be taken – for all children and their families, routine health care that includes obesity-focused education, nutrition and physical advice through audio-visual media and culturally conducive methods, endorsement of healthy lifestyle by prominent people and local champions, for children who are overweight or obese, a series of clinical counseling interventions in the primary care setting is suggested.
Organization and participation in health walks and healthy food festivals, information about nutrition to adults, safe walk/bicycle routes to school will help in community mobilization. Long-term changes in behaviours that are related to obesity risk should be emphasized, rather than diets and exercise prescriptions, which tend to set short-term goals.
School based interventions should include high importance on physical activity, making healthier choice available and banning unhealthy food in cafeteria, (sweetened beverages and energy-dense poor nutrition food). Teachers can play a vital role in this initiative. Training of teachers regarding nutrition education. Incorporation of more knowledge about nutrition and physical activity and nutrition related diseases in school curriculum.
Home-based interventions should include set firm limits on television and other media early in the child's life, and establish habits of frequent physical activity, TV/computer time to be restricted to maximum 2 h/day, mandatory 60 min of physical activity daily to be supervised by parents, restriction on eating out at weekends and restricting availability of unhealthy foods at home.
Implementing the FSSAI led initiatives like SNF@ school and SNF@ work can help create awareness amongst masses and help bring about a behaviour change.
The strategies should be culture specific, ethnical, and should consider the socio-economic aspects of the targeting population. Planning of a structured nutritional approach at primary school and corporates can help to break vicious cycle of age-old beliefs and wrong practices. Like awareness, availability and right use of infrastructure is equally important. Investing in nutrition can help the country in achieving better social and economic well-being. It is rightly said the Foundation of a Happy Life is a Healthy Life.
Dr S.Y. Mhaskar is a graduate from UDCT in Edible oil technology and earned his doctorate from Indian Institute of Chemical Technology for studies on surfactant and synthesis bioactive lipids. He has worked in HUL R & D centre for a decade on foods and personal care category creating a few patented technologies . Currently he is Chief Technology Officer at Marico Ltd. and handles both personal care and food categories. His interests lie in creating new edible oil/functional food formulations suited for Indian consumption and which will derive health benefits for lifestyle diseases. He has also created a few technologies in Personal care to derive novel hair and skin care benefits .He has 20 patents and 25 international patents Publicans
Oats: Complementary Nutrition Management for Lifestyle Diseases
Oat is consumed as a staple food for sustained energy release and healthy living for time immemorial in Australian context. Taking the health cue and other benefits, oats has been introduced in European & Indian Sub-Continent off the late. Health benefit of oats is attributed to nutraceuticals like avenanthramides and soluble fibre b-Glucan. Avenanthramides are known for imparting antioxidant properties and enhancing cellular antioxidants. b-Glucan, the soluble fibre plays detrimental role in attenuating inflammatory & metabolic disease.
The physico-chemical properties of fibre help in regulating the glycemic load of food consumed , by moderating in the digestion and absorption of nutrients. It helps in reducing the serum LDL - cholesterol by enhancing the excretion of cholesterol through bile acids by interfering with entero-hepatic circulation. In the large intestine, the soluble fibre due to its unique composition and texture helps to alter the gut microbiome. The resulting gut microbiome helps in producing favourable short chain fatty acids (viz: Acetic acid; Butyric acid and Propionic acid) which has implications on the satiety and appetite hormones. Further the insoluble fibre helps in stool bulking and easy bowel evacuation.
In an effort to make eating oats pleasurable, a spice seasoning which goes well with the Indian palate has been developed keeping in mind the cultural requirements of the consumer. During the presentation detailed experimental evidence available on the health benefits of oats developed with spice seasoning will be discussed.
Agriculture, Food Technology and Sustainable Development Goals: Indian Experiences
Agriculture, food technology and Sustainable Development Goals are closely linked. Food consumption and its drivers are changing at national scale with profound implications for food production. Linking SDGs with food production and consumption is important to understand consumption trends and their implications in India. Drivers of food and nutrition security should make the link between sustainable food production, nutrition security and balanced regional development. The question of affordability, availability and accessibility of the food for the people of every physical region of India posed a serious challenge. Even in urban region, people are underweight and facing malnutrition and deficiency diseases of different micro nutrients such as Vitamin A, Iodine, and Protein etc. Resilient agricultural practices can promote holistic principles of food security together with health and nutritional security in India. Nutritious food is a basic need of human being. A nutritious diet has a direct bearing on a person’s health, emotional stability, and enthusiasm for life. A number of technologies can play an important role in addressing concerns related to the various dimensions of food security. New and existing technologies to raise crop and livestock productivity may improve soil fertility and make water available and can potentially increase the amount of food produced. Finally, Science Technology Interface (STI) for food production, including precision agriculture, index-based insurance and early warning systems, can address challenges related to food instability.
Future food technology research and development programmes may focus on value addition of local products, regional requirements like grain, millet and nut based roasted healthy snacks, machines for sugarcane peeling and corn shelling, enhancing traditional foods in modern/catchy format. Food technology, national challenges and societal needs could be addressed through developing mobile food processing units at different geographic locations, dissemination of new food related technologies through smart applications (Mobile Apps). The effort of Aspirational Districts Programme of NITI Aayog in 117 selected districts from 28 states since January 2018 should be linked with most recent initiatives of CFTRI. The agenda identifies four regions: North Eastern Region (NER), Coastal Areas and Islands, North Himalayan States, and Desert & Drought Prone areas. Encouraging PPP (Public Private Partnership) to meet the high performance standards of the Indian industry rather than conform to minimum food safety practices for reducing the risk of food instability could prove fruitful in enhancing visibility and outreach of CFTRI products. For sustaining food production and technology, we need to focus on value addition of products through Sixth industry together with empowering communities through four Es: Enable, Engage, Exemplify, and Encourage. There is also a need for the reorientation of learning outcome based Food Technology Curriculum Framework. The initiatives like to start School of Open Learning, certificate/diploma courses for skill development, enhancement of employability skills and for maintaining standards could strengthen the interdisciplinary academic linkages.
Keywords: Food production, food technology, value addition, food technology education, SDGs, India.
Pulsed Light Treatment of Tropical Fruit Juices
Introduction: Consumer demand for minimally processed tropical fruit juice induces the possibilities of exploring nonthermal processes for the same. Pulsed light (PL) or high-intensity PL treatment is one of the emerging nonthermal techniques, which is gaining interest to the industry as it produces a microbially safe food product without or minimally affecting its phytochemicals and nutrient profile. In the case of pulsed light (PL) treatment, food is exposed to a spectrum of high-intensity light (200-1100 nm) with short pulses (100-400 μs) for a limited time. In the last decade, the application of PL treatment has been studied on several juices or beverages like apple juice, apple cider, and orange juice, and encouraging findings are reported. However, there is a paucity in describing the potential of PL treatment while applied on tropical fruit juices.
Objective: The study aimed to explore the efficacy of pulsed light treatment on different microbial, enzymatic and biochemical properties of tropical fruit juices followed by comparing the same with thermally treated one.
Methodology: The study explores the influence of pulsed light (PL) treatment on quality attributes of three different beverages within 1.8-2.4 kV/30-120 s/7.1-9.1 J·cm-2 per pulse (pulse-width 360 µs, 3 pulses per second). The beverages studied were pineapple and pomegranate juice and a mixed fruit beverage. The quality attributes analyzed were color change (ΔE*), antioxidant capacity, total phenolic profile, ascorbic acid, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activity, aerobic mesophilic count (AMC), coliform count, yeast and mold count (YMC).
Results & Conclusion: The treatment at 2.4 kV/60 s/94 pulses resulted in 5-D reduction in AMC, YMC, and total coliforms present in all juices. The color change was significant (ΔE* = 4.7) in thermally (TH) treated (90 ºC/5 min) juice, whereas, PL treatment did not affect the same (ΔE* < 1.4). Peroxidase was more resistant than polyphenol oxidase with a maximum inactivation of 25%. The maximum loss in total vitamin C content of PL and Thermally treated juice was 28% and 57%, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the juices was minimally affected by PL treatment (15% loss). It can be concluded that PL treatment of about 1 kJ·cm-2 can be an alternative to thermal pasteurization of tropical fruit juices in view of retaining the thermosensitive compounds. The outcomes of this study will enable the industry to visualize the changes in juice quality attributes, thus facilitating the process optimization of PL treatment conditions for the pasteurization of tropical fruit juices.
Keywords: Antioxidant activity, phenolics, enzyme inactivation, pasteurization, ascorbic acid, color change.
Role of Start up in Food Industry Gammation in the North East.
North Eastern Region is blessed with Agro-horti bounties; fruits & vegetables are aplenty having huge potential for both domestic & export in fresh & processed form. It can carve a niche in the organic food market as of late the production, certification, processing & marketing has started in an institutionalized manner under MoVCDNER (Mission on Organic Value Chain Development in the North Eastern Region) with better post-harvest technology, supply chain management, branding etc. The region being home to diverse exotic variety of fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants and other exotic cash crops could immerge as major centre of food processing industry under the Act East policy of Govt of India and Make in India / Make in North East..
Mission on Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH) is in practice for long resulting to increase in production, productivity manifold. It’s estimated that more than 40% of produces are wasted due to lack of post harvest facility & that a very negligible amount of it is processed in the region. Loss of nutritional value & monitory loss on that count is also huge. Large losses from farm to plate are attributed to poor handling, distribution, storage & purchase / consumption behavior. Huge resources that could otherwise be spent on more productive activities go into producing & transporting goods that only go to waste. Losses at almost every stage of the food chain can be reduced by using appropriate processing & packaging. Curbing the post-harvest losses of fruits & other horticulture & agriculture produces will be a money spinner for the farmers.
Govt. of India is making efforts to promote startup companies & develop entrepreneurship particularly in the north east to make a favorable change in the entrepreneurial scenario. Government has introduced single window system in few states of north east so as to clear all required permissions for an industrialist / entrepreneur within a span of 30 days to set up unit in the states.
So far baring few, most of the food processing units in north east are in unorganized sector. It’s true that the future of commercial horticulture through processing & value addition has to be technically based & knowledge driven. Food Safety has become a matter of high importance in our food intake. In an exercise to facelift the horticulture economy in the north east, Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MoFPI) Govt of India has started strengthening IIFPT (Indian Institute of Food Processing Technology) in the north east and also start with investrment in this sector through Mega Food Parks. FSSAI (Food Safety & Standard Authority of India) has also initiated a plan to upgrade existing Government owned food testing labs and is also aiming to have at least one state-of-the-art & duly accredited laboratory in every state even partnering with private labs. With the growing demand of organic food market in one side & the NE region producing naturally organic produces & products complimented with GI (Geographical Indication) tag for more than dozen horticultural crops & naturally available packaging, one can see the light of the day in transition of horticulture economy in the region. Food processing throuigh Start ups has already started in taking a lead & can emerge as an engine for economic growth & prosperity for the region by harnessing its potential on organic value addition & processing through different schemes of Government of India.
Regulatory Perspectives on Food Additives and Processing Aids
A rapidly rising population and greater levels of urbanization globally have boosted demand for processed food products, thus, driving the demand for food ingredients. Food additives manufacturers are seeing an increased demand from food manufacturers to preserve the freshness, safety, taste, appearance and texture of processed foods. Advances in technology and food additives make that possible. However, certain concerns regarding safety of food additives and trade considerations have prompted nations to have a consistent regulation for food additives. As a result most of countries have made robust premarket approval and listing of food additives. The regulations on food additives globally lead by three big agencies, ie US Food and Drug Administration, Codex alimentarius commission and European Food Safety Authority. However, post World Trade Agreement, for the member countries of World Trade Orgnaisation, the Codex Alimentarius has been referral point for food standards as they are science based. While nations have their own food regulations but now they are harmonising their standards with Codex standards for consistency and easy international trade. Harmonisation of standards is essentially use of risk analysis principles in evaluating the safety of the food additives, setting limits for their use in various foods and assessing risk, if any to consumers. India also through, Food Safety and Standards Authority of India( established under Food Safety and Standard Act 2006, for laying down science based standards for articles of food and regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import)has carried out this exercise. While harmonising with codex, regulatory requirements like, use of food additives is justified only when such use has an advantage, does not present a hazard to health of and does not mislead the consumer, and serves one or more of the technological functions, are considered. In addition, vertical standards for additives and methods for their estimation are also taken in to consideration.
While there was no separate category of processing aids earlier in Indian food regulations, they are now being separately listed. The regulatory requirements of processing aids are slightly different compared to food additives. The differences and similarities in regulating food additives and processing aids will be discussed.
NN Misra is a Postdoctoral Associate with the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University. His current research aims to identify novel applications of cold plasma technologies in agriculture, food and bio-processing, and develop diagnostic tools, both hardware and software, for plasma chemical characterization. His research is supported by funding from many medium and large enterprises in USA.
Misra earned his PhD in Food Engineering from Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland, master’s in Food Technology from CFTRI, and Bachelor of Technology in Food Science from ANGR Agricultural University. Prior to joining Iowa State, as a senior scientist with General Mills’s long-term technology development team for three years, Misra contributed to process development, product renovation using soft matter physics approaches, led the global open innovation campaigns and facilitated industry-academia partnerships. Misra has authored/co-authored over 45 refereed international journal publications, edited a book on cold plasma in food and agriculture, and contributed to about 15 books. Misra’s research interests and expertise circumscribe the broad areas of food physics, novel food and bio-technologies, optical spectroscopy, and computational modelling.
Cold Plasma in agriculture and food processing
Cold plasma is the partially ionized state of a gas that can be described as a cocktail of reactive chemical species. These reactive species can induce chemical changes in a range of biological systems, including bacteria, fungi, spores, viruses (and mammalian cells). In addition, they can also react with chemical contaminants, e.g. pesticides and mycotoxins. Specific plasma chemistries can be achieved by suitably tuning the process gas and plasma parameters. By leveraging the ability to dial in required chemistry, one could enable specific advantaged food and biological applications. Examples of such applications include, enhanced seed germination and nitrate production for agriculture; decontamination of fresh produce; food and food packaging properties modification. This presentation will introduce the fundamentals of plasma technology and discuss selected applications in agri-food sector. The choice of applications will be based on their industrial relevance and experiences of the speaker.
Enzymatically polymerized casein glycomacropeptide: A functional ingredient for encapsulation of bioactive molecules in hybrid calcium-based nanoparticles
In this talk, I will elucidate the biomimetic approach that food scientists and engineers can use to design and synthesize novel functional ingredients for a targeted application. In nature, there exists many examples of hybrid organic-inorganic biomaterials such as casein micelle, bones/teeth, diatoms and shells of eggs/crustaceans etc to name a few. Many of these hybrid biomaterials involve molecular interactions of organic phosphate and inorganic calcium surfaces, which in turn leads to a hierarchical structure of these biomaterials. Based on this knowledge and utilizing the concepts of soft matter science, I have enzymatically modified a phospho-peptide found in cheese whey to make a novel functional ingredient.
This novel functional ingredient was used to make hybrid organic-inorganic nanoparticles that can be used for immobilization/encapsulation of bioactive molecules such as curcumin, beta carotene and enzymes. The phospho-peptide used is casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) and it was polymerized by using microbial transglutaminase to produce poly-CGMP. Poly-CGMP type phospho-polypeptide (polymers) have been found to be good modifiers of the calcium phosphate crystal growth, crystallinity and colloidal stability when produced by a wet precipitation method. Various physico-chemical analytical techniques were used for probing the mesoscale structure of these hybrid nanoparticles, such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) adsorption isotherms. The changes in crystal size and amorphousness led to changes in the mesoscale structure of these particles and made them suitable for encapsulation. Polymeric form of the phospho-peptide was found to be more effective since it forms a good coating on the inorganic surface and imparts excellent colloidal stability to the nanoparticles.
In conclusion, using novel functional biopolymers for controlling/modulating the mesoscale structure of inorganic matrixes seems to be a viable option for industrial scale. The modified mesoscale structures with suitable pore size can be utilized for immobilization/encapsulation of various bioactive molecules that can be protected and delivered in a targeted manner. These hybrid inorganic-organic particles are expected to be useful for various food, feed and bio (pharmaceutical) applications.
Higher Education in Australia and Careers in Food Industry
Australia has gained popularity as a destination for education in almost last 2 decades where the enrolment of overseas students has increased roughly 3 times. This is owing to Australia being an immigrant friendly country and flourishing on the diversity. About 25% people are born overseas and about 45% of population has atleast one parent born overseas. Indians constitute nearly 2% of the population with strong participation in work force and most students in recent past have eventually settled in Australia after their education. The education system offers a different perspective to academics through significant emphasis on application and industry relevant content. Australia prides itself with the best quality food in Asia-Pac region and over last few years has been readying itself via policy interventions or food innovation centers as part of leading institutions to support the ever increasing demand in the ‘Asian century’. So the education in Agriculture, Food or even Management is very relevant today. The students from Indian subcontinent are uniquely placed with strong academic depth, combined with good understanding of the one of the leading markets in Asia i.e India. If these factors are combined with entrepreneurial spark, people from Indian origin are well placed to be the future leaders and entrepreneurs in this space and will be able to successfully ride the wave of ‘Asian century’. However, every journey needs a good preparation, persistence and hard work. While getting in to academic institutes is generally not difficult, cracking the job market will require a reasonable effort. Students need to be clear in their objective, pick the course relevant to their passion and be open to diverse career paths. If the intent is to settle and work in Australia, the degree of cultural and change agility will define the destiny. With right intent the journey can be highly rewarding.
Name: G. Venkatakuppuswamy
Position: General Manager –Key Accounts (S.W Asia) at LRQA
Two Postgraduate Degree in Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science
Master’s in Business Administration
Post diploma in quality management
Qualified Food Lead Assessor
Have assessed Food industries since year 1999
Key Account manager for Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, Mars, Wrigleys, Cargill, McDonald, Solapur Dairy, Aurangabad Dairy, Kerry Ingredients, Britannia
Regulatory Framework for Organic Products to Leverage Business Opportunity and Consumer Confidence
Consumers around the world becoming conscious of the health hazards arising out of the food and seek safer sources. In the last two decades the awareness about pesticides and other chemical residues in the food and resultant NCD like cancer made consumers to look for safe foods either fresh or processed. This gives raise to demand for organic products growing at a faster pace. Consumers are willing to pay higher price. India being large agrarian economy looked for opportunities and created institutional frame works like NPOP and PGS-India to guide the production at farm level and to compete with global agro products marketing players. The frame works provided a base for farm level production regulation. However, realising the significance of requiring a unified reference for organic food products in domestic and international arena, FSSAI has brought out a regulation to create credible identity in the form of Food Safety and standards (Organic Foods) Regulation 2017 and a portal in which all the details of licensed organic food producers and the details of products. This provides opportunity for credible reference of organic products with traceability to farm level and a brand identity in the form of ‘JAIVIK BHARAT’ logo. Further this regulation and the portal will provide opportunity for development of domestic and international market opportunities for organic products which will boost the value addition and return to farmers as organic products fetches premium price.
The growing demand for processed organic productions further opens opportunities for innovation in processing and packaging. New start-ups focusing in the manufacturing, processing, storing, and transporting of organic products of India for domestic and international markets of organic products should know the regulatory nuances to do business with ease. Similarly, the importers of organic products also know the regulatory requirements to sell organic products of foreign countries in India. This apart, the packaging and labelling of organic products play important role in fetching consumer confidence. The Food Business Operators must understand the regulatory framework covering the entire gamut of ‘Farm to Fork’. The session is focusing in a clear manner through presentation of details of Organic Regulations and its relations to the NPOP and PGS-India for better leveraging of opportunities in Organic Products of India.
Dr. V. Venugopal M.Sc. (Chemistry) Ph. D (Biochemistry) is a seafood technologist. He was associated with the Food Technology Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai, from where he retired as Head of the Seafood Technology Section. He has more than 150 publications in his area of expertise including research papers, review articles and book chapters. Dr. Venugopal has independently authored three books on marine products, entitled ‘Seafood Processing: Adding Value through Quick-freezing, Retortable Packaging and Cook-chilling’ ( 2006), ‘Marine Products for Healthcare: Functional and Bioactive Nutraceutical Compounds from the Ocean’ (2008) and ‘Marine Polysaccharides: Food Applications’ (2011); all the books were published by CRC Press (Taylor & Francis, USA). He has been a Post-doctoral Research Fellow at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, U.S. and a Visiting Scientist at the Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada He is a Fellow of the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, New Delhi, India..
NUTRIENTS AND NUTRACEUTICALS FROM SEAFOOD
Seafood comprising of finfish and shellfish significantly contribute to world food security. Seafood species are nutritious since they are rich in proteins and other nutrients including peptides, essential amino acids, long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, vitamins including vitamin B12, and minerals such as calcium, copper, zinc, sodium, potassium, selenium, iodine, and others. Commercial fish processing generates about 30 million metric tons of discards consisting of shell, head, bones, intestines, fin, skin, etc. These discards are rich in several nutraceuticals and biologically active compounds, which include oils containing omega-3 PUFA; carotenoids such as astaxanthin and β-carotene; proteins including myosin, collagen, and gelatin; enzymes; essential amino acids and peptides; polysaccharides and their derivatives including chitin, chitosan, glucosamine, and glycosaminoglycans; and mineral-based compounds. These compounds, depending on their nature, can have varying physiological functions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antitumor, anti-obesity, anticoagulant, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and other activities, which are valuable in healthcare. Marine biotechnology offers several techniques to isolate these nutraceuticals from seafood and their processing discards. The presentation will briefly discuss these aspects.
Structure, function and applications of proteins from cereals and pulses
Different approaches have been adopted to improve the nutraceutical, value addition and functionality of cereals and pulses. Proteins are functional components that affect quality attributes of finished products. Proteins from different sources and varieties/cultivars differ in structural properties, hence, in functionality. Thorough knowledge of protein characteristics amongst diverse lines/cultivars and sources is necessary for their efficient utilization in various food systems. Therefore, proteins from different kidney bean, field pea, cowpea, lentils and amaranth lines/cultivars were evaluated for structural, thermal, rheological and functional properties. The isolated proteins were further explored for utilization in gluten-free (GF) foods and edible/biodegradable films. Proteins with high proportion of β-sheets were thermally more stable and produced stronger and elastic gels than those with higher helical conformations. The protein isolates from different kidney bean lines resulted in the formation of more elastic and strong gels which made them suitable for textural improvement of a number of processed foods. The results also revealed that functional properties of the proteins were related to their surface properties, solubility, molecular weight, secondary structure and processing conditions. Additionally, field pea protein isolates showed the highest water and fat absorption capacity which render them appropriate for functional improvement of a number of processed foods such as breads and comminuted meat products/ sausages/ meat patties. These proteins had positive effects on gluten-free batter and muffin characteristics and improved various quality attributes of GF muffins depending on functional properties. Results also reflected that these proteins could be used successfully for the preparation of gluten-free muffins with characteristics comparable to those made with wheat gluten. The proteins from kidney bean, field pea and amaranth were also evaluated for edible/biodgradable film-forming properties. The film from field pea protein isolate produced the best films in terms of the highest tensile strength and transparency. Differences in mechanical and functional properties of the films from different sources will be explained based on the protein molecular weight, surface structural characteristics.
The Future of Food Packaging
The key to ensure the quality and safety of a food is its packaging. Food quality absolutely affects to the consumer health and their retail decisions. Therefore food packaging has an important role in the food industry. During the most recent century, numerous improvements in packaging technology have appeared such as IOSP (Intelligent or Smart Packaging), AP (Active Packaging) and SOGP (Sustainable or Green Packaging). IOSP is competent of indicating the condition of packaged foodstuff or its environment via sensors or indicators. Indirect indicators such as Time Temperature Indicators (TTIs), Gas Indicators, Microwave Doneness Indicators, and Radio Frequency Identification tags (RFID) are sensing to give information about product and manufacture to ensure whether product stored in a suitable and stable environment throughout the supply chain. Direct indicators (Maturation Indicators, Freshness Indicators, and Pathogen Indicators) are a future trend in IOSP which can sense storage conditions, pathogenic bacteria, volatile compounds, aroma compounds, biogenic amines, ATP degradation products etc to ensure about the microbial quality and freshness of foods. Antimicrobial Packaging (AMP) such as direct addition of AMP, surface attachment of AMP, surface coating of AMP, antimicrobial polymers, bioactive edible coating/films, generators, eliminators, scavengers, and absorbers are the key elements which are used in active packaging. SOGP has been a solution to the growing environmental burden of food packaging. It is engaging with the level of raw material, the level of production process and the level of waste management. In addition to that, secondary shelf life extension is one of emerging research area of food packaging as a solution to the environment pollution by food waste. In general maintaining/ improving, monitoring the food quality and safety and decreasing the environmental pressure are the overall objective of these food packaging systems. However, advancement of the food packaging systems must be based on the personal expenditure possibility to straighten up their implementation.
Dr. Vidya Raman Sridhar holds a PhD in Food Science from University of Wisconsin, Madison, a MS in Food Science from Kansas State University, and a Bachelor of Technology in Agriculture from Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, from Hyderabad, India. In her PhD research she developed a food grade vector that overexpressed novel endopeptidases discovered from a non-starter bacterium to debitter Cheddar Cheese, for which she got a US patent and published two scientific papers.
Her Masters research was on developing a HACCP plan and validating the safety of a novel meat infusion technology that can tenderize meat. Being a Meat Science graduate, she also completed a rigorous curriculum in meat science. Sporting a 4.0 GPA in her MS and Gold Medallist in BTech, she has been part of food science student association that has won many awards both in India and US.
She has 15 years’ experience in the food industry in roles within R&D and QA spanning a wide variety of food categories that include Bread, Soup, Nutrition Bars, Carbonated and Juice beverages, Non-dairy Whip Topping, and Dairy. General Mills, PepsiCo, Rich Graviss, and CavinKare are companies she has worked in roles from a Scientist to a R&D Head. She has 1 US patent for developing Jelly Beverage and has won various awards for Innovation. She also loves to teach and has mentored various BTech, MTech students as Adjunct Faculty in various colleges in India, including Anna University in Chennai.
She is currently heading the R&D Application centre for AVT Natural in Chennai. Her team develops proof of concept and a deep understanding of Natural products such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and functional ingredients such as Fenugreek Fibre, and Rice protein in Food and Meat applications.
She has completed her Advance Competent Communicator in Toastmasters International and a half marathon. She loves to travel and discover India. A people person, her passion is to build teams, and drive innovation. She is a mother of two beautiful girls and resides in Mylapore, Chennai.
Application of Fenugreek Fibre in Bakery, Snacks and Meat
Objective: To study the efficacy of fenugreek fibre in various food applications such as bakery, Indian snacks and meat.
Methodology: Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-gracum) is an endospermic seed with the highest dietary fibre at 50% on dry weight basis. The antidiabetic activity is attributed to the fiber portion of seed. AVT Fenugreek fibre extract was studied for its efficacy in Chapathi, Bread, Kerala Paratha, Indian Shev, and Chicken cooked sausages.
Results and Conclusion: AVT fenugreek fibre is extracted using a clean hydroalcoholic process. It has equal amounts of soluble and insoluble fibre at 25% each and 25% protein. It is also odourless and debittered to impart negligible taste to food, enabling its addition at higher levels of fortification. Application in Chapathi and Paratha at 4-5% resulted in significant yield increase with no taste impact. However it imparted brown color to the product. In Indian Shev, there was also less oil absorption apart from yield increase. Inclusion in cooked chicken sausages at 1% in combination with starch and protein was effective in binding of protein, and water retention potentially aiding in phosphate replacement. Further studies are required to understand synergies of AVT Fenugreek Fibre extract with other food ingredients.
Prospects and challenges in probiotication of processed fruit products
Consumption of probiotics helps maintain a beneficial balance of intestinal microflora in humans. Probiotics should be non-pathogenic, resistant to processing, gastric acid, and pancreatic secretions, able to attach to gut epithelial tissue, colonize the gastrointestinal tract, produce antimicrobial substances, modulate immune responses and influence the metabolic activities of the host. The most common probiotics belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. However, strains of Bacillus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus (Streptococcus thermophilus), and yeasts (Saccharomyces boulardii) have also shown the potential to be considered as probiotics. There has been a sudden surge in research on development of non-dairy based probiotic products, largely because of relatively high incidence of lactose intolerance among the population, high cholesterol and fat content in the dairy products and vegetarianism. Therefore, development of probioticated processed fruit products open up new avenues for health promotion through the intake of such products. The major challenge in developing probioticated fruit beverages is the inherent high acidity in the beverages which increases during storage having a negative impact on its sensory attributes. In addition, maintenance of the population of live cells at desired concentrations in the fruit beverages throughout storage period even under refrigerated conditions is another area for concern for developing a probioticated beverage with a reasonable shelf life. In our endeavour to develop a probioticated ready-to-serve (RTS) mango beverage, few strains of Lactobacilli, Bacilllus spp and Saccharomyces spp. were screened. Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 showed potential for developing probioticated RTS mango beverage because of its relatively slower growth and low additional acidity development during the storage of the beverage, compared to other screened strains. In our preliminary investigations, we observed an increase in total soluble solids (TSS) of about 10% decline in total sugar concentration by about 7% and a three-fold increase in acidity in the probioticated beverage during sixty days of refrigerated storage. A significant increase in lactic acid, citric acid and malonic acid was observed while a slight decline in hydroxycitric acid concentration was seen during sixty days of refrigerated storage. A cell population of 1×1010 cfu/ml was observed in the probioticated mango beverage after 60 days of storage. Total phenolic acid and flavonoid concentration increased by about 2 and 1.5 times, respectively, while the FRAP assay showed an increase of nearly 1.5 times during storage. Though, the sugar (sweetness) to acidity changed during storage, organoleptic evaluation of the stored product showed a moderate to favourable response among the panelists. The results show the potential for developing a probioticated RTS mango beverage with L. helveticus MTCC 5463. Shelf life of probioticated mango beverage beyond 60 days is also being evaluated. We are also evaluating the delivery systems for impregnation of L. helveticus cells into the fresh-cut mango slices
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Nutritional Security through Wisdom of Indian Traditional Foods
With improved economic conditions and the impact the green revolution had on making us self-sufficient in food production, India can hope to achieve food security in coming years. However, the increasing triple burden of malnutrition and rapid rise in life style diseases clearly indicate that achieving nutritional security is going to be a distant dream. Increasing emphasis on convenience, westernization of food habits, changing life styles and food habits are leading to the triple burden of malnutrition. The changing ecological conditions, environmental stress, over use of fertilizers and pesticides and hybrids that are created with sole purpose of increasing the yield per hectare without due consideration to the nutritional profile are resulting in compromising nutritional quality of the agri produce. Wheat we produce has less zinc and iron; apple has less phytonutrients compared to what was 50 years ago. This realization has led to globally the agriculture industry reverting to the good old organic farming. Usage of too many synthetic colors, artificial sweeteners, preservatives and processing aids had led to a consumer push back asking for clean and green labels where use of all the above is minimized or avoided. Here again we are going back to the old practices and emphasizing on use of natural ingredients and minimum processing and reducing processing aids. The wisdom gained by Indian traditional food over thousands of years is a gold mine of solutions in helping us achieve nutritional security and sadly we seem to be ignoring it and focusing on solutions coming from west. Similar to organic farming, clean labels it is time we look back and deep dive in to this wisdom and find solutions to achieve nutritional security in making a healthy India. This approach can make India a leader in providing health solution through food. This wisdom may not have the scientific backing or recorded evidence to meet the expectations of today’s fast moving generation and it would be the responsibility of food and nutrition scientists to provide this. Global popularity of Turmeric and Ashwagandha are some examples of such approach.
Surapal's Vrikshayurveda written in 6th century is a systematic composition starting with the glorification of trees and tree planting. It then proceeds to discuss various topics connected with the science of plant life such as procuring, preserving, and treating of seeds before planting; preparing pits for planting saplings; selection of soil; method of watering; nourishments and fertilizers; plant diseases and plant protection from internal and external diseases; layout of a garden; agricultural and horticultural wonders; groundwater resources; etc. this clearly shows the emphasis traditional Indian food system had for producing quality ingredients. According to Indian food theory there are 6 different flavors sweet, salty, bitter, sour, astringent and spicy and traditional foods strike a balance of all these tastes. One of the essences of Indian traditional food system is its emphasis on diversity, which ensures that we get the full spectrum of numerable phytonutrients that are needed for maintaining good health. India has the highest biodiversity of spices. We are looking at spices only for enhancing the taste however; they are also the rich source of phytonutrients that provide health benefits. Kshemakutuhalam of Kshema Sharma a 16th century work is observed as a unique compendium on Indian culinary science, which gives the complete information about the method of preparation of different food substances along with their medicinal properties. Pakdarpana is a documented text that describes the science of cooking and is believed to be developed written by King Nala mentioned in Mahabharata. Although the exact dating of this manuscript is unavailable, it is fascinating that an impressive array of vegetables, meats, spices, flavoring and souring agents as well as culinary techniques were used in the preparation of dishes using ingredients mostly native to India. Recent scientific studies have shown that the grate taste of the Indian food hinges on decidedly different ingredient pairing logic than what is used in rest of the world.
From balanced nutrition to optimum nutrition in future we will be talking about personalized optimum nutrition with the help of nutrigenomics. You are what you eat. For centuries, this has been the basis of most cuisines across the world. But it was Ayurveda, the 5,000 year-plus-old Indian health science, which first introduced the art of ‘personalized cooking’. In fact, it went a step further by demonstrating how not only what you eat makes a difference but how it is prepared also makes a difference. Based on the understanding of the unique combination of Vata (Ether), Pitta (Fire) and Kapha (Water) that constitutes the human body and balances its life forces, the Ayurvedic cuisine encompasses dishes made with such combination of food that optimizes these elements in the human body. We have been eating Idli and dosa which are prepared by combination of cereal (rice) and Pulse (Urad dal). But today the comparison of PDCAAS values have revealed that this combination actually synergistically enhances the protein digestibility of rice and pulse protein resulting in better absorption protein by the body.
This presentation explores the wisdom provided by the Indian traditional food with modern nutritional science lens and how it is relevant in achieving the nutritional security for todays and future generation.
Khesari dhal Protein: A boon for developing countries or fascinating paradox
In India, Khesari (Lathyrus sativa L) is grown extensively in the states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Jharkhand. Khesari dhal is also consumed in countries like Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Nepal. It is a very hardy crop and does not require fertile soil, fertilizer or irrigation and can grow under adverse environmental and climatic conditions. Its cultivation has declined in India since the imposition of ban on its use for human consumption in 1961. It is one of the richest source of protein among the pulses and contains about 28% protein as well as many other nutritive ingredients in useful quantities. Ban on the use of Khesari as a human food was imposed when scientific investigations identified a neuro-toxin ß-N-oxaly1 amino-L-alanine or BOAA in it. According to few research investigations, the long term consumption of this dhal was associated with a type of spastic paralysis called neuro-lathyrism in some parts of Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. The concentration of this toxin in Khesari dhal ranges from as low as 0.1 to as high as 2.5% depending upon the variety as well the agro-climatic conditions of the place of cultivation. Most of the high BOAA varieties, which give higher yield also are from the wheat growing zones i.e. Bihar and Madhya Pradesh, where the disease was mostly endemic. Therefore, a blanket ban on Khesari dhal needed reconsideration, while renewed scientific endeavors were perused to develop varieties with low BOAA content.
Three new varieties, namely Mahateroa (0.07% BOAA), Ratan (0.06% BOAA) and Prateek (0.08% BOAA) were released recently in India with <0.1% of BOAA content. These varieties were developed using tissue culture techniques. Keeping in view the new varietal development as well as further reduction of BOAA in these varieties when cooked, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has cleared Khesari dhal as safe for human consumption and allowed its cultivation in December, 2016 in the country. Now, the cultivation of Khesari is likely to jump in coming years. The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India’s Scientific Panel and Scientific Committee has put Khesari dhal under intense scrutiny, before it will be allowed to hit the market legally.
Sampling of various food matrix and sample handling
Sampling is the act of selecting a certain portion,number of containers or product units from a particular lot of the same food.The sample must be as representative as possible of the entire consignment or lot from which it is collected.This session may brief about specific instructions for various foods.Sample should be collected following a particular plan or procedure.There are certain criteria should be considered in formulating a sampling plan.The tools available to an sampler range from common tools for general purposes to special tools to be used in specific situations and for specific examinations of particular food products.Sampling activity and sample handling should retain integrity of the sample.
Profile of Dr. K.D. Yadav
Sr. Vice President (Technical )
AAK Kamani Pvt Ltd.
Ph.D. Tech. in food Technology from UDCT (presently known as ICT), Mumbai, India under guidance of Professor J.S.Pai.
Industrial Experience :
Affiliation to Professional Organizations :
Brief Cv of Dr R B N Prasad:
Dr R B N Prasad, is the Former Chief Scientist and Head of Centre for Lipid Research of CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad. He has extensive research experience in the area of oils, fats and allied products. He has published over 260 research papers, contributed 20 chapters in books and filed about 85 Indian and Overseas patents. His group has transferred about 18 technologies to more than 60 industries. Dr Prasad has received more than 20 national awards like VASVIK award, CSIR Technology Prize, TDB National Award, BRSI Industry Medal, JG Kane Memorial Award of OTAI for his research contributions in the area of lipid science and technology. Dr Prasad is the immediate Past President of Association of Food Scientists and Technologists (India) and Past President of Oil Technologists’ Association of India. Dr Prasad is the Chairperson of Scientific Panel of Oils & Fats of FSSAI.
Importance of Regulations for the Quality and Safety of Edible Oils & Fats
Oils and fats are essential nutrients in both human and animal diets. Nutritionally, oils and fats are concentrated sources of energy (9 kcal/gram) compared to protein or carbohydrates (4 kcal/g). According to dietary guidelines, about 20 – 35% of total calories must come from oils and fats. Globally about 220 million tons of oils and fats are being consumed and in India the consumption crosses about 23 million tons per year. Hence, the safety and quality of oils and fats are very crucial for the benefit of consumers. It is necessary to take lot of care from the quality of raw material to the packaging of the final product of edible oils and fats. In general, there is a possibility of mixing cheaper oils with expensive oils and this is the major intentional adulteration of edible oils and fats. In isolated cases, unethical industries are adulterating edible oils with synthetic oils being prepared by the reaction of glycerol and fatty acids, which must be condemned by all the stake holders. Due to this type of unethical market competition, an honest trader cannot easily match the unrealistic prices that the adulterating product charges. Hence the legislation which is making regulations has to ensure that consumers and fair traders are adequately protected. Hence, over the years, the standards of Codex Alimentarius Commission and individual countries for oils and fats have been gradually modified to enhance their usefulness in tackling authenticity problems. By considering the importance of edible oils and fats in the common man’s food, FSSAI is also taking lot of care in providing safe oils and fats to consumers by introducing several crucial specifications like fatty acid composition, peroxide value, limit on trans fatty acid content, restricting the total polar material in the fried oils etc., During the last couple of years standards have been introduced for some new oils and fats. The presentation provides an overview about the importance of regulations for the safety and quality of edible oils and fats.
Development of an entrepreneurial support system in an R&D Institute - a case study of ICAR-CIFT
An entrepreneurial support system handholds entrepreneurs to shift their economic resources through strong technical and advisory support, into areas that yield higher productivity and returns. According to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Report 2017-18, there is a strong need for such support systems in a country like India, where there is an increasing trend in the number of startup entreprises. With the aim of enhancing the foundation for new technology based industries and developing a knowledge-based economy, particularly in the fisheries sector, ICAR - Central Institute of Fisheries Technology (ICAR-CIFT) started an Agri-Business Incubation (ABI) Centre. It focuses on finding new ways of doing business in fisheries and allied agricultural fields, through wide spectrum of activities. The Centre helps prospective entrepreneurs, by providing pro-active and value-added business support in terms of technology transfer, consultancy, infrastructure facility, experts’ guidance and specialized training programmes to develop technology based business ideas and establish sustainable enterprises. It acts as a platform for the speedy commercialization of the technologies, through an interfacing and networking mechanism between research institutions, industries and financial institutions. The Incubator at ICAR-CIFT differs from traditional Business Incubators as it is tailored specifically for technology based industries and is operational at an area with a high concentration of fish production. This industry-specific incubator also allows new firms to tap into scientific knowledge and business networks. ABI offers their services to industries not only in Cochin, but also all over the world through virtual incubation. By creating a favourable environment, the institute is playing an important role in grooming and nurturing the budding entrepreneurs in the right direction.
FOOD QUALITY: FINGER PRINTING BY E-SENSING TECHNIQUES
Dramatic developments in electronics have paved the way and leading to newer heights in innovations in research and technology. In the past two decades, advances in electronics have received considerable attention in the field of sensor technology. Measuring human perceptions using instrumental techniques is a challenging task. In the past many attempts have been made to develop instruments - which can mimic human perception of taste and aroma. In this electronic era, one can see many e-sensing analytical instruments like electronic eye, electronic nose, electronic tongue are available for research as well as quality control purposes. These e-sensing devises mimic our human biological senses and work in the similar fashion as we do. The sensors technology and pattern recognition systems play a critical role in finger printing and analyzing complex recognition process. E-sensing technologies have become more popular due to the advances in software innovations, sensor micro circuitry design developments and systems integration. The invention of several new sensor types and arrays, with varying detection principles (potentiometry, voltammetry and conductometry) and mechanisms were associated closely with newer applications. E-sensing tools have provided a plethora of benefits to research and development as well as quality control in many sectors like agricultural, biomedical, cosmetics, environmental, food, manufacturing, pharmaceutical etc., Sensor based electronic noses, were engineered to mimic the human olfactory systems designed to get repeatable and reliable measurements, capable of identifying and discriminating complex volatile/aroma mixtures. Taste is an important sensory property, deciding acceptance of a food product for administration through mouth. Taste-sensing system is based on analytical sensory array - their unique property is measurement and characterization of a complex liquid matrices. Because of features, they have been first used in food industry. Sensory arrays can detect specific substances by means of different artificial membranes and electrochemical techniques and also with their unique characteristics of partial selectivity or cross-selectivity. These sensor systems also known as electronic tongues perform a global taste analysis of a complex mixture of dissolved organic or inorganic compounds, similar to the human tongue. This instrument is capable of detecting compounds responsible for taste in liquid samples and performs comparisons of various products based on taste profile. The electronic tongue not only assesses basic tastes like sweet, bitter, sour, salty and umami but also other gustatory components like metallic, pungent, astringent, etc. Generally e-sensing devises are normally used to provide qualitative analysis / results about the samples under investigation and only in special cases to predict the concentration of individual species in the sample.
Today, electronic noses are used extensively as an analytical tool. The commercialization of electronic noses began in the early 1990’s and now widely accepted as a potential instrument for olfaction analysis for detection and classification. The artificial olfaction based on sensor technology had its beginnings with the invention of the first gas multisensor array in 1982. Advances sensor technology and artificial intelligence have made it possible to develop devices capable of characterizing volatile or non volatiles enumerating from different samples. Many multivariate techniques are being used along with different e-sensing technologies as a pattern recognition system. The interpretation of the complex data matrix from e-sensing signals is accomplished through the application of multivariate data analysis. The commonly used multivariate techniques are principal component analyses (PCA), discriminant function analysis (DFA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), cluster analysis (CA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares (PLS). For non-linear responses, artificial neural networks (ANN), fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms are can be used effectively to model the data.
There are many e-sensing devices are being used to analyze different sensory perceptions. Apart from, e-nose and e-tongue which are available commercially, another upcoming e-sensing technique is - an electronic eye. This equipment has a camera based imaging system designed for visual assessment of products appearance. The visual aspect of products, particularly food products, is strongly linked with “quality” conciseness in consumers' mind set. Therefore color and appearance are crucial sensory parameters for products success in the market and need to be monitored reliably and consistently. By achieving instrumental analysis of the overall visual appearance, both color measurement and shape analysis, e-eye vision system can effectively address the industrial needs for visual quality control and inspection systems.
Electromyography (EMG) has emerged as a new tool in sensory evaluation mainly for analyzing textural characteristics of a food. EMG finger prints changes happening during the masticatory process, these changes in EMG parameters provide better assessment of sensory characteristics than mechanical measurements. Better and useful correlations were reported between EMG data and sensory measurements. Although sensory analysis is the final or ultimate test for the acceptance of a food product, there are many disadvantages associated with it. The first and foremost is the “time factor” involved. It is “time consuming and cost involved in it. The natures of results are often qualitative and to some extent subjective. More importantly it cannot be performed on foods that may have toxic substances or microbiologically not safe. It also lacks information on composition or nutritional status of food including safety aspects. To overcome these factors, objective analytical techniques, based on standardized equipment and procedures, are preferred for testing food properties that are related to specific sensory attributes. Based on the above, several attempts have been made to correlate specific sensory perceptions like aroma, flavor/taste that can be characterized using objective analytical techniques, with varying degrees of success. Sensory attributes of a new or improved food are usually evaluated by human beings to ensure their consumer acceptability and desirability prior to launching onto the market.
Advances in quality control capabilities afforded by electronic monitoring of all phases of industrial manufacturing and quality control processes resulted in consistent quality with improved quality characteristics. The development of artificial senses technologies is occurring rapidly, with demonstrated ability to differentiate aroma and tastes properties. These systems are becoming faster, more reproducible and smaller. However, there are some concerns like reproducibility, consistency and robustness for commercial applications. Likewise better data analysis systems are required to integrate responses with sensory and instrumental/chemical data and to combine data of different e-sensing technologies like e-noses and e-tongues to better replicate the human sensing system.
Future developments in the use of hybrid micro sensor arrays and the development of adaptive artificial neural networking techniques will lead to superior e-sensing devices. This presentation will highlight the different e-sensing techniques employed in food quality including their technology and advantages.
Entrepreneurial imperatives and paradigms in food business operation
Technological food processing regime in India is metamorphosing and undergoing a revolutionary change faced as it is with newer challenges in meeting nutrition, health and food standards in relation to conception, product, process design and energetic. Current food processing methods, techniques and technologies need to specifically wake up to this order to not only comply with the safety regulations in place, vogue and practice but also address itself to conserving the sensory attributes besides, protecting various heat sensitive nutritive and nutraceutical components enshrined within the food matrix. In this quest to answer such imperatives, the technological regimes are transcending the conventional thermal processing, dehydration and freezing protocols to embrace newer frontiers in combination processing, cold chain technologies, MA- and CA- storage, non-thermal technologies such as HP and IR processing, microwave processing, application of pulsed electric fields, ultrasonics, oscillating magnetic fields, RO and UF concentration techniques, etc. To come true to this paradigm in product development and technologies, the conventional is becoming more modern and current and, the whole unfolding scenario presence a myriad opportunities to all the budding futuristic new food business operators and entrepreneurs to unleash a food processing venture and new start-up that in its wake seeks to provide varying technical and non-technical job opportunities.
It needs to be emphasised that unless the new technologically informed food entrepreneur pays enough heed to aspects of nutrition, health and food standards, the effort may not culminate in to a successful venture in the long sustainable run.
“Assuring value from optimised sensory quality practices”
Consumer liking depends largely on the sensory properties of food and beverages. It is therefore essential to ensure sensory quality of the products and its consistency to meet preferred aroma and taste requirements of the consumers. It is also critical that products reach the consumers without any sensory quality deficiency, which can adversely affect the product profile and consumer acceptance. Besides sensory quality assessment at various production stages, optimised sensory quality assessment is effectively applied for product shelf life stability studies and new product development. Integration of sensory sciences also supports consumer research to capture valuable consumer insights on their preferred sensory attributes for development of highly liked products. A wide range of well-established sensory evaluation methods are extensively used for routine and specialized applications. A structured training of sensory panellists and calibration of their proﬁciency through participation in a reliable proﬁciency scheme enhance trustworthiness of their sensory quality decisions for more effective QA/QC and product stability studies. Other notable advantages include use of harmonised sensory terminologies and improved discerning sensory capabilities by practicing retronasal tasting using GMP compliant safe to taste ﬂavour standards.
The presentation will cover an overview on critical sensory attributes and sensory methods for quality evaluation and capturing consumer preferred sensory attributes for product development. The importance of improving sensory sensitivity by retronasal tasting using unique GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) compliant safe to taste flavour standard will be explained and critical needs of sensory training and proficiency validation will be discussed.
Open innovation practices in the development of new food products
New product development (NPD) implies the complete process of bringing a new product to the market and represents a vital part of smart business strategy. It is recognized to be a key activity to boost the innovativeness of food industry, to improve the competitiveness and enhance the growth, which ultimately contributes to the overall economic development. New product development has several key drivers: Consumer requirements (1) which are constantly changing, imposing different trends in consumption; Market trends (2) which are changing in relation to consumer requirements; Application of technological advances in food processing (3), The latest understanding of ingredient functionality (4), The changes in legislation or food regulations (5). In order to bring a new product to the market innovation must be enhgaged. Food industry tends to create new food experiences, but great innovations are rare. In the reality, sometimes it is difficult to distinguish between products, which are copied by competitors who produce similar products. In new product development, the innovation refers either to real or perceived “newness” in a brand new or already existing product. The level of ’’newness’’ can bring product which is new to the world (1 in 100), product improvements and (processing) cost reductions. The fact that a food product is not ‘new to the world’, does not diminish its importance to a consumer, producer, or retailer It was estimated that only 1 in 100 products were really new.
NPD process must flow throughout several stages: the idea generation stage, the product formulation stage, process development, initial testing and viability assessment, shelf-life testing, scaling up, consumers acceptance testing and packaging and labelling, where innovation can emerge from any stage in the process. If the source of innovation originates solely from the production organization, it is considered the traditional innovation processes described as “closed” due to its confinement within the organization. This approach in most cases will result in minor improvements, since internal knowledge is usually not enough to achieve the radical innovativeness. However, by using internal, as well as external innovation inputs and by interaction with consumers and other partners throughout the whole process – as the concept of ‘’open’’ innovation foresees, food industry can be able to achieve a market breakthrough and competitive position. The transition of the food industry from ‘’closed’’ to ‘’open’’ innovation creates new opportunities for research institutions to collaborate with industry partners and consumers which ultimately may result in commercializable scientific outputs and increased innovation rate of the industry. The first version of open innovation practices (known as open innovation 1.0) promotes a triple-helix network of communication and relationships between university–industry–government, offering an instrument for bridging the gap between knowledge providers and knowledge-users. The upgraded concept of open innovation (known as open innovation 2.0) foresees the inclusion of consumers into the innovation process making the quadruple helix model of innovation where consumers joins with business, academia, and government sectors to drive changes. Consumers can be actively involved within the new product development process - from ideation, through product development and commercialization, to post-launch activities. A case study in which the utilization of open innovation concept was tested will be presented. The utilization of by-products from food industry in the development of new functional food ingredients/products was tested in the open innovation environment. The results demonstrated that when properly guided and given the opportunity to work in interdisciplinary groups, consumers, industry and science are capable of providing innovative solutions and products on the basis of by-product utilization.
Keywords: new food product development, innovation, closed innovation, open innovation
Rajesh Harsh is currently Heading Technology Innovation Division of SAMEER. He has completed his Masters Degree in Applied Physics with Specialisation in Electronics in 1986 from Madhav Institute of Technology & Science, Gwalior. He joined Society of Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering & Research (SAMEER), which was part of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. In his 32 years of career in SAMEER, he has worked on prestigious projects of National interest such as National MST Radar for atmosphere probing, Linear Accelerator for Cancer treatment, Dielectric based systems of Agriculture & Food sector in the field of RF & Microwaves. He is currently leading two very important project ie. Smart Warehoused with Application of Frontier Electromagnetic & Electronics based Technologies & National Mission project of Indigenous Development of Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
Recent Developments in Electromagnetic wave Processing for Food and Agro-Industry
In recent years the emergence of Electromagnetic wave techniques for food and Agro industry has speculated high potential. Due to this there have been significant advances in product formulation and engineering. The Microwave techniques have provided ease for processing operations such as drying, baking, sterilization, pasteurization, for aquametry, blanching and thawing. The Radio Frequency processing techniques have given novel approach for drying and disinfestation of food grains. The drying and heating techniques using EM waves consume less energy and are highly efficient.
The Microwave slow drying of food products and grains is done so as to reduce the bacterial growth inside them. In baking industry dielectric heating based finishing is becoming popular since it reduces the baking time. Electromagnetics have assisted in sterilization and pasteurization process as they aid fast heating of liquid food products. Radiation based aquametry has given a revolutionary non-destructive method for moisture content measurement in various food products and grains. For the inactivation of enzymes before packaging of food products, the fruits and vegetables to be used as raw materials are immersed in water at high temperature. The heating of water at about 88˚- 97˚ C can be attained using microwaves; this operation is termed as Microwave Blanching. Emissive thawing enables defrosting of fish and meat using electromagnetic waves for increasing their storage temperature (-8˚ C) to 0˚ C. The Photonic drying provides a technique for drying of post harvested food grains which have high moisture content so as to increase their shelf life. Growth of insects in storage granaries has high probability. RF disinfestation can kill the insects at early stages thereby reducing the grain losses. Thus, Electromagnetic Processing has very high scope in food processing and agro industries.